Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.2. Significance of the Study
1.3. Scope of the Study
1.4. Organization of the Study
1.5. Operational Definitions of Related Terms
CHAPTER TWO GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE
2.1. Conceptualizing Gender- Based Violence
2.1.1. Forms of Gender-Based Violence
2.2. Causes of Gender- Based Violence
2.3. Consequences of Gender- Based Violence
2.4. Gender-Based Violence and Female Refugees
2.5. Overview of Major International Human Rights Instruments on Gender-Based Violence and Refugees
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Description of the Study Area
3.2. Research Strategies
3.3. Data Source
3.4. Sampling Techniques and Procedures
3.5. Methods and Tools of Data Collection
3.6. Data Analysis
3.7. Ethical Consideration
CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDY: GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE AGAINST ERITREAN FEMALE REFUGEES IN ETHIOPIA (THE CASE OF MAI AYNI REFUGEE CAMP, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA)
4.1. Prevalence of Gender-Based Violence
4.1.1. Physical Violence
4.1.2. Socio-Economic Violence
4.1.3. Sexual Violence
4.2. Causes and Risk Factors for Gender-Based Violence against Female Refugees
1.2.1. Forced Idleness
4.2.2. Physical Insecurity
4.2.3. Men’s ‘Loss of Power’
4.2.4. Economic Dependency
4.2.5. Collapse of Social and Family Support Structures
4.2.6. Lack of Awareness
4.2.7. Poor Reporting, Coordination and Legal Enforcement Mechanisms
4.3. Consequences of Gender-Based Violence
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY
Appendix I: Interview Guideline
1. Interview Guideline for Female Refugees at Mai Ayni Refugee Camp
2. Interview Guideline for Male Refugees at Mai Ayni Refugee Camp
3. Interview Guideline for Key Informants
4. Focus Group Discussion Guideline
5. Guideline for Personal Observation
Appendix II List of Informants
1. List of Female Refugee
2. List of Male Refugee
3. List of FGD Participant
4 List of Key Informants
I would like to express my sincere and wholehearted gratitude to my advisor Elshaday Kifle for her genuine professional and technical assistance.
I am very grateful to all the study participants and particularly those female refugees who disclosed or let us to know their painful violence experiences. I also thank all workers in the camp for their responsible support for data collection and I appreciate their contribution in carrying out this emotionally challenging interview.
I am also thankful to my family, for putting up with me through my testing moments in write up of this paper whereby I was completely engulfed in my work and poorly responded for their needs and care. Asme and Gech you deserve great respect. My appreciation also goes to Giday Meles who deserve great respect and due regard for the support he rendered. In addition, my gratitude goes to my best friends, Elsabeth Mulu, Yikealo Tarke, Biniam Debela, Mebrahtom Guesh, Tedros Solomon, Filimon, Shewita G/biher, Melak and Tekelay who contributed me ideas and necessary materials which are important for the robustness of the paper. I also thank to Habtamu Alebachew and Yemane Zeray.
Above all my deepest thanks go to Almighty God who is the source of my strength and every achievement in my life.
Yonas Bayruau Gebreiyosus
THIS STUDY IS DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF ERITREAN FEMALE REFUGEES IN ETHIOPIA
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Gender-based violence prevents female’s enjoyment of fundamental human rights and it is also central social, economic and health problem. Similarly, gender-based violence is viewed as a significant problem in refugee camps throughout the world. However, studies on gender based violence against female refugees are limited. Most researches in this area were conducted in line with other problems of refugees. Yet, in order to assess comprehensively it needs specific study. Thus, the main objective of the study was to examine the prevalence, cause and consequences of gender based violence against female refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp. In order to achieve these objectives, qualitative methods of data collection have been employed. Hence, data were collected from in-depth interview with female refugees and five male refugees, focus group discussion with male and female refugees, key informant interviews as well as document analysis and personal observation were used. The book has found that female refugees in the camp were exposed to sexual violence, physical violence and socio-economic violence including; attempt rape, rape, gang rape, physical injuries, discrimination and stigmatization, and denial of access to services. The study also disclosed that male refugees and intimate partners of female refugees were the prime gender based violence perpetrators of female refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp. Moreover, the study revealed that idleness, economic dependency, physical insecurity, lack of awareness, collapse of social and family structure as well as poor reporting, coordination and legal enforcement mechanisms were identified as causes/risk factors for gender based violence against female refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp. Moreover, men’s feeling of ‘loss of power’ in the camp, which challenges male’s identity as superior to female, led male refugees to anger and makes female refugees vulnerable to different forms of gender based violence. Consequently, because of gender based violence, female refugees in the camp have short and long lasting damaging consequence on their life in terms of health, physical and psycho-social.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Gender based violence has become a major concern and a serious problem throughout the world. International human rights instruments recognized gender based violence as a violation of human rights. Accordingly, the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women defines gender-based violence as, “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life”.
On the other hand, people have been forced to escape their home and seek protection since the ancient times. In medieval times, in some parts of the world, history recorded that whole population sometimes was forced to flee and seek protection. Today, a number of people are displaced, refugees or seeking asylum. From an estimated 1 million refugees in 1951 when the convention dealing with refugees was adopted, in 2011 the numbers of refugees reached over 15 million people within the concern of the United Nations Higher Commissioner for Refugees (Hereinafter, referred to as, UNHCR). Thus, refugees are undoubtedly an issue of global concern.
Consequently, according to the report of UNHCR, Sub-Saharan Africa is hosting one quarter of all refugees and hence, the trend of refugee number had been increasing due to crisis in different parts of the world including in East Africa. Indeed, Ethiopia is now hosting some 370,000 refugees. There are 86,660 Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia. Mai Ayni is one of the refugee camps in Ethiopia with 15,354 Eritrean refugees, of which 5,014 are Female refugees and the ethnic composition also show 92.7% of the entire refugees are from Tigrigna.
From the other dimension, gender based violence which constitutes violation of human rights, is a global concern crossing cultural and socio-economic lines. For instance, in Kenya 43% of 15-49 year old women reported having experienced some form of gender-based violence in their lifetime. Likewise, between 40 and 50 percent of women in European Union countries experience unwanted sexual advancements, physical contact or other forms of sexual harassment at their workplace. Moreover, between 15% of women in Japan and 71% of women in Ethiopia reported physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime. Hence, these facts display that gender based violence is a worldwide problem with damaging effects and it takes place in all segments of society throughout the world.
Even worst, gender based violence is more problematic in displaced settings. Such settings have the highest victim numbers as women are often targeted for gender based violence and hence, they are the most vulnerable to exploitation, violence, and abuse simply by virtue of their gender and status in society. For instance, more than 250 cases of rape in several camps were reported in the first 150 days after the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Besides, a study shows that females are less likely than males to have access to even the most fundamental rights in refugee settings. Likewise, camp situations expose female refugees to high levels of gender based violence and human rights abuse because of poor security within or around the camps. The capacity to live free from fear is often especially violated for female refugees.
Hence, gender based violence is one of the most humiliating and damaging human rights violence outstretched over borders and cultures. It is the most common problem among females in refugee camps and it is a multifarious problem that cannot be ascribed to single cause but to a various set of dynamics.
Thus, gender based violence in refugee camps is an acknowledged human rights abuse and is a violation of various international human rights instruments that place responsibility on host governments and other players to protect the human rights of female refugees. However, according to Mary Jennings and Sherry McLean, gender based violence is seen as a complex and sensitive issue to engage with, is covered in silence, and coupled with the almost certain knowledge of impunity, have all led to inaction.
Besides, Ganeshpanchan argued that gender based violence in refugee camps deserves attention and research regardless of the context for the reason that when a refugee uproots her family to flee persecution, her entire frame of reference is changed and the social structure that she knew turns out to be only a thing of the past. Changes in access to services, community support, resources, and security also diminish the capacity of female refugees to feel empowered. These makes female refugee more susceptible to gender based violence.
Researches also display that female refugees are susceptible to gender based violence and they are more frequently at risk to be exposed to different types of gender based violence than other females. For instance, a research carried out by UNHCR indicates that a global analysis of 2004 camp data shows that only from 62 camps, 37900 cases of gender based violence has been reported to UNHCR. Moreover, according to UN, gender based violence is worst in refugee camps since female refugees are usually raped and abused by military and immigration personnel, bandit groups, male refugees and rival ethnic groups and they are also forced into prostitution. Thus, gender based violence against female refugee is one of the main problems in refugee camps.
Likewise, in Ethiopia different reports show the vulnerability of female refugees to different forms of gender based violence. For instance, a report by Columbia University’s Program on Forced Migration and International Rescue Committee ( Hereinafter referred to as, IRC) in two Somali refugee camps in Ethiopia indicated that only in 18 months 40% of female refugees had experienced one act of physical violence and 20% of female refugees had been raped.
Moreover, according to International Medical Crop female refugees in Ethiopia are victims of different forms of gender based violence. According to this report, female Somali refugees were victims of sexual, physical and intimate partner violence. Besides, the report also proved that rape cases are commonly addressed by traditional clan leaders who negotiate compensation between the perpetrator’s and survivor’s family without consideration for the survivor’s wishes.
Apart from the above reports of NGOs and other reports, the existing literatures in Ethiopia mainly describes the prevalence and characteristics of violence against Ethiopian women; primarily gender based violence against female students, domestic workers, child and domestic violence with limited emphasis given to females in refugee camps. On the other hand, some existing study by various concerned bodies show that refugees in Ethiopia face different problems including lack of adequate clean water, food, shelter, and freedom of movement. Yet, these researches mainly focused on general problems of refugees not specifically on gender based violence against female refugees.
Moreover, an academic research attempt was observed mainly touching the issue of women’s situation in refugee settings. Nonetheless, the emphasis is still not particularly on gender based violence against female refugees, but rather on the general conditions of women under refugee settings in general with no particular reference to camps. In line with this, the research approaches focused largely on assessing the problem of female refugees and hence, it lacks an approach of examining gender based violence in line with international human rights instruments.
Hence, though female refugees are among the most vulnerable groups to be exposed to diverse forms of gender based violence, the nature and dynamics of gender based violence against female refugees in Ethiopia appeared to be least understood. Similarly, at present, there is no clear information about gender based violence in the study area.
Thus, as it has been noted in order to fill the research gaps discussed above, the book examined the prevalence of gender based violence, causes associated with it and the consequences of gender based violence against female refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp.
1.2. Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will serve for the following major practical significances:
- The findings acquired from the analysis provide an insight on gender based violence against female refugees, the enforcement of human rights in the camp and the general situation of female refugees in the camp. And, this could be used as an input by different concerned bodies including, but not limited to, Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (Hereinafter referred to as, ARRA) UNHCR, IRC, the local government in the area and NGOs so as to undertake a further comprehensive and in-depth study. Also, it can be used for designing appropriate mechanisms and monitoring systems to address gender based violence and for the protection of human rights of refugees in the camp.
- The study selected female refugees as a main target group to share their experience of gender based violence in the camp, which in turn provides useful information about prevalence and causes/risk factors of gender based violence against female refugees. This fills a gap in research regarding gender based violence against female refugees, which is not satisfactorily assessed unlike gender based violence against Ethiopian women who are out refugee settings. Thus, it will broaden understanding and provide better information about gender based violence against female refugees.
- The study revealed that female refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp encountered double problems. Firstly, they are refugees who faced different problems and challenges during journey to Ethiopia. Secondly, they are victims of gender based violence within the camp. Accordingly, it will elucidate the seriousness of the problem to all stakeholders particularly ARRA, UNHCR, and IRC in order to take all appropriate measures to alleviate the stated problem.
- Finally, it may stimulate prospective researchers to conduct further research on this area and to address those areas that remain untouched or inadequately treat.
1.3. Scope of the Study
Even though assessing gender based violence against female refugees in all refugee camps found in Ethiopia could have been significant, the scope of this study is geographically limited to Mai Ayni refugee camp so as to make the study manageable. On the other hand, the paper examined only sexual, physical and socio-economic violence though there are two additional forms, namely; Psychological violence and Harmful traditional practices.
In addition, female refugees may become victim of gender based violence in different stages; prior to flight, during flight, in the country of asylum (camp), during reparation and during reintegration. However, in order to make the study manageable and consistent with the responsibility of concerned bodies, the study examined gender based violence which only occurred in Mai Ayni refugee camp i.e. in the country of asylum.
1.4. Organization of the Study
The study contains a total of five chapters. Chapter one present; the introduction, significances of the study, scope of the study and operational definition of related terms. Chapter two present review of related literature, which served as a basis for understanding the subject matter. Chapter three presents methodological part that helps to guide the study. Chapter four deals with findings and analysis of the data obtained from the selected respondents and second hand materials. The last chapter provides concise conclusion along with possible recommendation. Finally, list of reference materials used for conducting the study, sample of interview guide, interview guide for FGD and list of informants are annexed at the end of the paper.
1.5. Operational Definitions of Related Terms
- Gender-based violence: is any harm that is perpetrated against females’ will; that has a negative impact on the physical, psychological, health, development (including economic development), and identity of the female; and that is the result of gendered power inequities that exploit distinctions between males and females.
- Sexual violence: is any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, or other act directed against female using coercion, by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting. It includes but not limited to: rape, anal rape, attempted rape, inappropriate touching, forced prostitution, gang rape and sexual harassment.
- Physical Violence: includes but not limited to: beating, punching, kicking, biting, burning, maiming or killing, with or without weapons; often used in combination with other forms of gender-based violence.
- Scio-economic Violence: is characterized by discriminatory access to basic health caress and education, inadequate shelter food, economic deprivation, social exclusion, obstructive legal practices, such as denial of the exercise and enjoyment of civil, social, economic, cultural and political rights to female, and acts that involve denial of opportunities or services on the basis of gender.
- Perpetrator: is a person, group, or institution that directly inflicts, supports and condones violence or other abuse against female refugees.
- Victims/Survivors: refers to female refugees who have suffered gender-based violence.
- Mai Ayni Refugee Camp: this refugee camp found in the North-West of the Tigray Regional State with more than fifteen thousand Eritrean refugees.
CHAPTER TWO GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE
2.1. Conceptualizing Gender- Based Violence
There is no one commonly agreed universal definition of gender-based violence; understandings differ according to country, community and legal context. Violence against women is a term often used synonymously with gender-based violence. Nevertheless, the term does not make it clear whether or not the violence is derived from unequal power relationships between female and male in society. Hence, the adjective “gender-based” is repeatedly used to highlight the role that females’ subordinate status in society plays in increasing the risk that they will be impacted by violence. Thus, the intention of the term is in order to stress that violence against female is a phenomenon that is connected to the gender of both victim and perpetrator.
Moreover, there is a tendency of extending this definition to all kinds of violence that are linked to social expectations and social positions based on gender. Accordingly, research in the area provides compelling evidence that violence against women is caused by gender inequities and is both accepted and sometimes even tolerated by laws, institutions and community norms that discriminate the female. Thus, gender-based violence is a term that gradually encompasses all acts of violence rooted in some form of gender inequalities, and with the purpose of preserving social power.
Legally, gender-based violence was defined by the U.N. Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1992) as:
a violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or violence that affects women disproportionately. It includes acts that inflict physical, mental or sexual harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion and other deprivations of liberty.
Moreover, the 1993 United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (Hereinafter referred to as, DEVAW) defined gender based violence as:
any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life
Furthermore, Article 2 of DEVAW further specifies that violence against women should include different types of violence. Hence, it was referred as “gender-based” to focus the links between violence against women and women’s subordinate status. Besides, the definition was expanded in 1995 by the Fourth World Conference on Women in its Beijing Platform for Action, which added that such violence includes forced sterilization and forced abortion, coercive or forced contraceptive use, female infanticide and prenatal sex selection and women’s human rights violations in situations of armed conflict particularly murder, systematic rape, sexual slavery and forced pregnancy. Also, another form of gender-based violence i.e. economic exploitation was recognized by the Commission on Human Rights in its Resolution 2003/45 on “Elimination of Violence against Women”.
2.1.1. Forms of Gender-Based Violence
Based on different international human rights instruments, UNHCR developed five forms of gender based violence; Sexual violence, Physical violence, Emotional and Psychological violence, Harmful traditional practices and Socio-economic violence. Sexual violence is one of the forms of gender based violence with a devastating impact on victims. It is also a human rights and public health issue that exceeds borders and incurs a devastating global human cost. According to WHO, sexual violence is any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, or other act directed against a person’s sexuality using force by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting.
Moreover, the UNHCR guideline on sexual and gender based violence against refugees explored various forms of sexual violence; included are rape, marital rape, child sexual abuse, defilement and incest, sexual abuse (inappropriate touching), sexual exploitation, forced prostitution, sexual harassment and sexual violence as a weapon of war.
The other form of gender based violence is socio-economic violence which includes firstly, discrimination and/or denial of opportunities, services; secondly, social exclusion/ ostracism based on sexual orientation; and thirdly, obstructive legislative practice. Accordingly, this type of gender based violence is a fundamental cause for other forms of gender based violence.
The third form of gender based violence is physical violence which can be manifested through beating, punching, kicking, biting, burning, maiming or killing, with or without weapons; often used in combination with other forms of gender-based violence. Moreover, there are worst forms of physical violence such as trafficking, slavery. This form of gender based violence greatly affects females’ health and psychology. For instance, the 2005 WHO Multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women in 10 mainly developing countries indicates that in rural Tanzania 47% of ever-partnered women have ever experienced physical violence by an intimate partner, while 31% have ever experienced sexual violence.
To sum up, gender based violence comprises much more than sexual violence. Although it may occur in public contexts, it is also rooted in individual attitudes that condone violence within the family, the community and the state. Needless to say, the root causes of gender-based violence must be identified before appropriate programmes to prevent and respond to this violence are planned. Thus, the next section explores the causes of gender based violence.
2.2. Causes of Gender- Based Violence
Gender based violence is a global issue, which spans all social classes and age groups. One of the fundamental causes is the power gap between male and female and the way females are underprivileged in main areas. In this regard, while gender-based violence may be aggravated by particular social structures, value systems and traditions, it is rooted primarily in unequal power relations.
Thus, females’ lack of social and economic power, accepted gender roles and the low value put on female’s work are the reasons to perpetuate and reinforce their subordinate position. In this regard, Jewkes argued that gender-based violence has its roots in gender inequality. “Gender-based violence is the violence involving men and women, in which the female is usually the survivor and which arises from the unequal power relationships between male and female.”
A study conducted in different African countries show that violence, exploitation and abuse prevail when the inequality of power is misused to the disadvantage of those people who cannot negotiate or make decisions. Thus, the abuses of power and gender inequality are the underlying causes for different types of gender based violence. Consequently, power inequality is primarily manifested by:
economic inequalities, at all levels (individual, household, community and society); they are evident in levels of utilization of household resources; and in access to and control over productive resources, personal property, employment, wages and credits etc. inequalities in economic sphere not only diminish women’s economic independence and condense their capacity to act and take decisions, but also increase their vulnerability to gender-based violence.
Moreover, according to Fleishman, a self-perpetuating cycle of poverty makes females in the conditions of economic dependency to enter into risky and exploitative relationships in order to ensure access to basic necessities. Thus, while absence of economic dependency does not necessarily defend female from violence, access to economic resources can enhance women’s capacity to make meaningful choices, including evading from violent situations and having alternative mechanisms to protect from any form of gender based violence.
Furthermore, another cause of gender based violence is discriminatory cultural norms. While some cultural norms and practices do empower and protect females’ rights, in contrary to this, some traditions, customs and religious values are often used to justify or even encourage gender-based violence against female. Moreover, traditional gender norms that support male superiority and entitlement, social norms that tolerate or justify violence against women, and weak community sanctions against perpetrators identified as risk factors for gender based violence.
Additionally, patriarchal ideology sometimes intertwined with other systems of subordination and exclusion and its expressions influenced by factors such as economic status, ethnicity, class, age, and religion is the cause of gender based violence. Hence, gender-based violence is more likely to occur in societies with rigid and traditional gender roles. “In societies where the ideology of male superiority is strong emphasizing dominance, physical strength and male honor gender based violence is more common” .
Besides, study conducted in different countries show that lack of access to education, information and services increases the vulnerability of females to various forms of violence. Thus, illiterate people are less likely to have information about gender based violence, about available social benefits, and their rights, including procedures to access the social, health and legal services in times of gender based violence incidents. However, having a good educational status by itself is not always an assurance to evade gender based violence. For instance, a South African and Zimbabwean study illustrated that correlation between higher level of female education and increased vulnerability to sexual violence. This is because female empowerment is accompanied by a resistance to any kind of gender based violence, which in turn aggravates men to violence in an attempt to regain control. Yet, female empowerment converses high risk of gender based violence only up to a certain level, after which it confers safeguard.
In summary then, some community and societal-level risk factors are associated with higher or more severe rates of gender based violence. The WHO identifies the following as causes and risk factors of gender based violence; traditional gender norms that support male superiority and entitlement, social norms that tolerate or justify violence against women, weak community sanctions against perpetrators, harmful use of alcohol, weak legal sanctions, drug, poverty, and high levels of crime and conflict in society.
2.3. Consequences of Gender- Based Violence
Gender-based violence has devastating consequences for victims, their families and the broader community. The consequences of different forms of gender based violence include; health consequences, psychological consequences, and socio-economic consequences.
Gender based violence impairs the health of females and its effects are numerous and severe ranging from fatal outcomes such as homicide, suicide and AIDS-related deaths to non-fatal outcomes such as chronic pain syndrome, gastrointestinal disorders and sexually transmitted infections. Particularly, victims of sexual violence are exposed to infections of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (hereinafter referred as, STD) including HIV/AIDS. Thus, the experience of sexual violence affects the possibility of infection by HIV and other STD when it hinders female’s ability to negotiate condom use.
Therefore, gender-based violence has serious effects that put the health of victims under risk. In addition, the physical effects of gender based violence contain malnutrition, gynecological problems and unwanted pregnancies. Attempts at abortion following an unwanted pregnancy from rape also have severe medical complications.
Apart from the health consequences, gender based violence has serious psychological consequences. The psychological consequences of gender based violence include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, shock, memory loss, and sexual dysfunction. According to one study one-third of all cases of suicide among women and 60 per cent of all female murder victims are linked to gender based violence. Different forms of gender based violence also left deep emotional scars on many of surviving females.
Moreover, a research conducted by Advocate for Human Rights revealed that hopelessness, loss of control, anger, suicide, behavior disorders, and eating disorders are some consequences of gender based violence especially when different forms of gender based violence go undiagnosed and untreated. Furthermore, fear of additional gender based violence also keeps women from going about their normal activities such as attending school, engaging in the market, or participating in politics.
Furthermore, gender based violence have negative consequences not only on the health and psychology of victims but also on the social and economic activities of victims, the community and the state in general. From social impact perspective, in some societies it is difficult for a female who has been subjected to gender based violence to find a partner for marriage. Most societies tend to blame the victim and hence, this social rejection results in further emotional damage like shame, self-hate and depression. Additionally, unwanted pregnancies from rape also lead to further stigmatization by the community, as well as economic and emotional effects for mothers.
Thus, gender based violence causes immeasurable social and psychological damage. Similarly, the costs to society are extensive. Gender based violence poses notable costs for the economies of countries including lower worker output and incomes, lower rates of accumulation of human and social capital, and the generation of other forms of violence. For instance, the cost of intimate partner violence in the United States alone exceeds $5.8 billion per year; $4.1 billion is for direct medical and health care services, while productivity losses account for nearly $1.8 billion. Besides, studies in individual countries show a high correlation between preventing gender based violence and achieving sustainable poverty reduction:
Gender-based violence produces direct costs to individuals, families and to society. In particular, it is important to recognize the high cost of providing medical and legal care to victims, as well as the negative impact of violence on labour productivity. In addition, society also has to spend significant resources on prosecuting offenders .
Likewise, one study displayed that, in New Zealand, the national spending on measures in connection with different forms gender based violence against women (protective measures, loss of income medical care, criminal justice, courts, prisons, etc.) is high and it is equivalent to the income grossed from the country’s single most important export product i.e. wool. Similarly, in Canada, a nationwide study demonstrated that 30% of abused women give up work completely and 50% are temporarily unfit for work and hence, the costs amount to 1.6 billion dollars a year including medical care and productivity loss.
2.4. Gender-Based Violence and Female Refugees
The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol to the convention are the contemporary legal embodiment of the ancient and universal tradition of providing legal protection to those at risk and in danger. Both instruments reflect a fundamental human values on which global consensus exists and are the first instruments at the global level which specifically regulate the treatment of those who are compelled to leave their home. Subsequently, according to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is someone:
who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her Race, Religion, Nationality, Membership in a particular social group, or Political opinion; is outside his/her country of origin; and is unable or unwilling to avail him/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution.
Also the according to Article 1A (2) of the 1951 Convention, which prescribes an inquiry into whether the refugee claimant is a person who:
owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. . . .
Moreover, the Organization of African Unity (Hereinafter referred to as, OAU) Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, a regional treaty adopted in 1969, added to the definition of the 1951 Convention to include a more objectively based consideration:
every person who, owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country, or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.
Thus, unlike the migrants, a refugee is forced to leave his country of origin by forces which he cannot control. More specifically according to Refugee Proclamation No. 409/2004 of Ethiopia, any person shall be considered as refugee where:
1 . owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of particular social group or political opinion he is outside his country of nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling, to avail himself of the protection of that country;
2 . not having a nationality and being outside of his former habitual residence, he is unable or owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, he is unwilling to return to it; or
3 . Owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality, he is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationality, in case of refugees coming from Africa.
Hence, the existence of the class of refugees in international, regional and national law not only entails legal consequences for state, but also the entitlement and responsibility to exercise protection on behalf of refugees. The office of the United Nations High Commissioner for refugees is the agency presently entrusted with this function as the representative of the international community. In line with this, based on the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, countries which ratified the convention, including Ethiopia, have the duty to collaborate with UNHCR.
Concerning female refugees, though all refugees are vulnerable who need protection from a host state, female refugees are more vulnerable group and hence, the Beijing Platform for Action identified female refugees as particularly vulnerable to gender based violence:
Those belonging to minority groups, indigenous women, refugee women, women migrants including women migrant workers, women in poverty living in rural or remote communities, destitute women, women in institutions or in detention, female children, women with disabilities, elderly women, displaced women, repatriated women, women living in poverty and women in situations of armed conflict, foreign occupation, wars of aggression, civil wars, [and] terrorism including hostage taking.
Thus, due to different reasons, female refugees are the most vulnerable group in any community. The discriminations and challenges that female refugees encounter start in refugee determination status systems. Refugee status determinations tend to emphasize public and political activities which are traditionally associated with men. Furthermore, despite the fact that female refugees are the majority, often they have more difficulties than males to obtain their entitlements in camp settings. Hence, vulnerability increases when female refugees are forced to live in camp settings. According to UNHCR, the vulnerability of women and children in these settings is particularly acute as they comprise 80 percent of refugees and displaced populations worldwide.
On the other hand, States have the legal duty for protecting female refugees. Those states which excessively host refugees depend upon the support of other states. UNHCR and NGOs are also dependent on donors. Accordingly, such uncertainties and limitations may force female refugees to resort to coping strategies that reduce their vulnerability to gender based violence. Thus, due to the absence of material and social resources, female refugees are often severely restricted in their opportunities to develop sustainable livelihoods as well as social and individual integrity:
They sometimes become marginalized when remaining confined to refugee camps, lacking fundamental rights, such as freedom of movement, and the right to work. In many cases, camp situations expose refugees to high levels of violence and human rights abuse because of poor security within or around the camps. The capacity to live free from fear is often especially violated for women refugees.
Moreover, situations of refugee camp lead to the breakdown of community safety mechanisms and this, in turn, increase the risks of violence within the refugee camp. Female refugees are also more vulnerable to violence from outside of the refugee camp when traditional community protection is disrupted. Feminist scholars caution that emphasizing the view that refugees are weak and dependent has serious consequences because it reinforces the simplistic images of female refugees as passive, vulnerable, and powerless and therefore, overlooks the complex gendered, socio-economic, and political relations that result from their being refugees.
Currently Ethiopia is hosting around 370,000 refugees dominantly from Somalia, Eritrea and South Sudan. According to Women Refugee Commission, Ethiopia has resisted policies that promote integration by making reservation on the right to seek formal employment. Majority of refugees are required to remain in designated camps, most of which are located near to the borders of Eritrea, Somalia and South Sudan. However, one of important steps is that Ethiopia offers these refugees different levels of scholarships and other assistances including tertiary and above education opportunities.
Concerning gender based violence in refugee camps in Ethiopia; a study conducted in Somali refugee camps indicated the pervasiveness of gender based violence against female refugees:
The data show that across survey areas, approximately 40% of women and girls had experienced at least one act of physical violence within the last 18 months and approximately 20% of women and girls had been raped within the last 18 months. When disaggregated by age, more than 50% of women 18 years of age or older had experienced physical violence and more than one-third of women 18 years or older had been raped. Of those under 18, more than 20% had experienced physical violence and less than 10% had been raped.
Similarly, according to Women Refugee Commission, female refugees in the Somali refugee camps in Jigjiga region are victims of sexual violence and exploitation. As a result, most girls are isolated, marginalized and highly vulnerable.
In summary then, in different parts of the world including Ethiopia, during emergency and refugee settings, female refugees are susceptible to different forms of gender based violence. This is the case not only in the initial phase of disruption and movement, but also in refugee camps.
2.5. Overview of Major International Human Rights Instruments on Gender-Based Violence and Refugees
A number of international agreements prohibit different forms of gender based violence. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Hereinafter referred to as, UDHR) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Hereinafter referred to as, ICCPR) are among the main international human rights instruments which contain provisions prohibiting different types of gender based violence including discrimination based on sex. Moreover, based on the articles stated on both conventions, it can be deduced that refugees have equal rights with citizens of a given State. Similarly, International Convention on the Rights of the Child (Hereinafter referred to as, CRC) in its Article 19 incorporates the state duty to struggle against sexual abuse which is one form of gender based violence. Remarkably, out of a similar non-discrimination clause, CRC clearly mentioned child refugees and State duty.
Besides, the enactment of Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (Hereinafter referred to as, CEDAW) in 1979 can be considered as a milestone in the history of women’s right. One of the important steps is that CEDAW called on the international community to support changes of social patterns and cultural traditions which hitherto are based on the inferiority or superiority of one gender and to adopt relevant legislation and prohibit discrimination against women in all its forms. Furthermore, recommendations issued by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, which supervises States compliance with the treaty, have clearly defined “discrimination” to include violence against women. Likewise, CEDAW obliges States to take appropriate measures to avoid any form of discrimination including gender based discrimination. Additionally, the Optional Protocol to CEDAW creates the competence of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to obtain and consider complaints from individuals or groups within its jurisdiction i.e. communications procedure and provides for an additional inquiry procedure. From female refugee perspective, CEDAW and its Optional Protocol establish standards for States in a number of areas that are important to refugee women, and hence, as discussed by Alice Edwards CEDAW is applicable for women refugees:
The non-discrimination framework offered by the CEDAW reinforces the human rights of displaced and stateless women and girls. Women’s rights elaborated in the CEDAW are not subject to distinctions based on immigration or other legal status, but are instead focused on their equality and advancement. Hence, they apply to all women regardless of their nationality or immigration status.
Apart from the above international conventions there are different human right instruments which seek to eliminate gender based violence at regional level. In Africa, the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women offers for strong protections against different forms of gender based violence and incorporates its elimination under the scope of women’s rights to life, integrity and security of the person and the right to dignity. Also the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child includes protection from sexual abuse under the scope of “torture, inhuman or degrading treatment.”
Based on the above stated international and regional conventions it is obvious to state that gender based violence constitutes violation of human rights. At this point, it is worth to mention the link between the conventions revealed above and the duty of Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia ratified all the above stated conventions. And based on the 1995 FDRE constitution they are an integral part of Ethiopian law.
Apart from the above international conventions which are parts and parcel of Ethiopian law, domestically there are different legislations and policies which promote gender equality. Particularly Article 35 of the current Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia noticeably stipulates the rights of women. Thus, the 1995 Ethiopian constitution guarantees the rights of women as equal to those of men in all spheres including equality in marriage, the right to equal employment, and rights to maternity leave with pay, the right to acquire, administer, control, use and transfer property, with emphasis on land and inheritance issues and the right to access family planning and education. Also, the 2005 Criminal law of Ethiopia criminalized different forms of gender based violence or violence against women. At this point it worth to mention that by virtue of Art.21 (5) of the FDRE Refugee Proclamation No. 409/2004 refugees in Ethiopia are subject to the laws in force within Ethiopia. Apart from this, locally different policies and strategies are developed so as to address gender based violence.
In addition to the above international, regional and national laws, different declarations and resolutions have been enacted by various international and regional stakeholders. Yet, unlike the above international treaties they are not binding. However, their existence shows international consensus and the emerging of customary international law that prohibits different forms of gender based violence.
One of significant steps in this regard is the enactment of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993). This declaration heavily depends on different international human right instruments. As it has been noted earlier, it defines gender based violence in line with violence against women. Additionally, though it is not limited, it also stated three elements of violence against women. Moreover, the declaration calls upon States to adopt measures directed toward the elimination of violence against women.
Besides, in view of the frightening increase in the number of cases of violence against women in different parts of the world, the Commission on Human Rights adopted resolution 1994/45 of 1994 and decided to appoint the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women. This Special Rapporteur provides suitable condition for gathering and investigating evidences on violence against women in all parts of the world.
In a nutshell, there are different international and regional declarations concerned mainly with the elimination of gender based violence. These declarations and resolutions seek to provide momentum to the collaboration to eradicate gender based violence. Therefore, the above international conventions, regional conventions, declarations, and resolutions recognize that gender based violence constitutes serious violation of human rights
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The aim of this chapter is to present the research method that helps the study to give answers to achieve the objective as well as to describe the process of data collection and analysis. Thus, the chapter has the following steps; description of the study area and site selection, research strategies, data source, sampling techniques and procedures, methods and tools of data collection, and ethical consideration which are discussed below.
3.1. Description of the Study Area
Mai Ayni refugee camp is located in Northern Ethiopia, in Tigray Regional State (Hereinafter referred to as, TRS). TRS covers some 50,086 km across Northwestern and Northeastern Ethiopia. The camp is located roughly 82 km from Shere the district administrative of North-Western Tigray, on the way to Western Tigray and around 1382 km from the capital city of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. The camp is situated at 1,000 m above sea level in a patchwork of cleared land and low density dry land forest.
3.2. Research Strategies
As it has been noted, the main objective of this study is to examine the prevalence, cause, and consequences of gender based violence against female refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp. Accordingly, the researcher made thoughtful decision as to which ways of data gathering methods would be best to achieve the stated objective. Consequently, qualitative method is imperative in obtaining an in-depth understanding of a topic in a particular context. In this regard, Natasha Mack, put the significances of qualitative research methodology in the following:
The strength of qualitative research is its ability to provide complex textual descriptions of how people experience a given research issue. It provides information about the “human” side of an issue that is, the often contradictory behaviors, beliefs, opinions, emotions, and relationships of individuals. Qualitative methods are also effective in identifying intangible factors, such as social norms, socioeconomic status, gender roles, ethnicity, and religion, whose role in the research issue may not be readily apparent .
Hence, by using the qualitative data to a large extent, believes, opinions, emotions, and relationships of individuals can be examined. Moreover, in human rights research, the central source of information is first-hand testimonies of the survivors of violation of human rights. Regularly, these are the very voices that are muted or silenced by the government and society. Therefore, survivors’ voices remain paramount to the process of investigation. Consequently, qualitative research methodology generates an in-depth descriptions of participants’ experiences, in their own words, that provide otherwise unobtainable information about and insight into the issues under study. Because of these reasons a qualitative research methodology is considered appropriate to be employed. Hence, data were collected through qualitative methodology.
3.3. Data Source
As stated on the above, the study employed qualitative methodology. In line with this, both primary and secondary sources were used. Primary data were collected via In-depth Interviews with female refugees, Focus Group Discussion (Hereinafter referred to as, FGD) with female refugee and male refugees, Key informant interview with key informants, and Personal Observation. With regard to secondary data sources, different studies, documents, reports, publications, discussion papers of government organizations and non-government organizations, books, documents form internet were reviewed.
Thus, primary data collected from; Female and male refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp, UNHCR officials, ARRA officials (Ethiopian Government), Legal experts, Refugee Representatives, and Health Officer in the camp. In addition, the researcher was also used different secondary information sources; Publications books, journals, research works on gender based violence against female refugees, international human rights instruments, constitution and proclamations.
3.4. Sampling Techniques and Procedures
The main objective of the study is to examine gender based violence against female refugees and hence, female refugees were the key target behind the investigation of human rights violation. Thus, in choosing female refugees as research participant, the research made thoughtful decision by considering the central focus of qualitative research methodology. The central question in qualitative research is whether the sample provides access to abundant data with the right focus so as to achieve the stated objective:
For many qualitative researchers however, the ability to generalize their work to the whole research population is not the goal. Instead, they seek to describe or explain what is happening within a smaller group of people. Thus, the believe, might provide insights into the behavior of the wider research population, but they accept that everyone is different and that if the research were to be conducted with another group of people the results might not be the same.
Hence, in qualitative research, the amount of data collected is small because it does not strive to generalize but rather, provide an in-depth view on the topic. Accordingly, eighteen female refugees for in-depth interview, four female and four male refugees for FGD, and five male refugees for in-depth interview were selected to participate in this research. Moreover, one from UNHCR officials, one from ARRA officials, one from legal experts of concerned court, one from Refugee Representatives, and one from Health Officers, were deliberately selected due to the fact that they have been working and concerned with refugees. Besides, they have provided useful and imperative data which helped to achieve the stated objectives. On the other hand, from sampling procedure perspective, purposive sampling technique was employed.
In this type of sampling, items for the sample are selected deliberately by the researcher; his choice concerning the items remains supreme. In other words, under purposive sampling the organizers of the inquiry purposively choose the particular units of the universe for constituting a sample.
Thus, the researcher purposely set some criteria for selecting research participants. Accordingly, since, female refugees who live in Mai Ayni refugee camp are main target group of the study, decisions with regard to selection of female refugees was made carefully. Consequently, the researcher has put down certain criterion that determines the eligibility of prospective participants.
The first criterion set by the researcher was age. Accordingly, female refugees whose age is more than eighteen were selected as research participants. The reason for this is more than 74% of refugees in the camp are young and thus, the researcher excludes gender based violence against child refugees which is open for further study. The second criterion chosen was their time of stay in the camp. Only female refugees who stayed at least one year and above in the camps were selected as research participant. The reason to put this as a criterion is the researcher considers that their experience will help them to generate diverse responses and they could understand the issue and express their experiences straightforwardly.
The last criterion employed by the researcher is marital status, since refugee camp is temporary camp there are only few married refugees but more than 90% of refugees in the camp are not married. Accordingly, only research participants who are not married selected as research participant. Thus, the researcher omits domestic violence in Mia Ayni refugee camp, which is open for further research. Likewise, in order to select male refugees, the researcher employed the same criteria with the exception of marital status. Moreover, on the basis of preliminary assessment/observation, female refugees were purposefully drawn from diverse zones of the refugee camp.
Table1. Number of female refugees interviewed, by place of interview, Mai Ayni Refugee Camp, Northern Ethiopia.
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Similarly, for the selection of key-informants, purposive sampling technique was employed. Specific individuals selected by the researcher as key informants of the study were judgmentally decided by the researcher based on their knowledge with regard to the problem under investigation. Consequently, as explained earlier, UNHCR officials, ARRA officials, legal experts, refugee representatives and health officers were intentionally designated.
3.5. Methods and Tools of Data Collection
Both the primary and secondary sources were used to obtain adequate information about gender based violence against female refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp. Primary Sources were used to collect firsthand information. Secondary Sources were used to strengthen the primary sources. The instruments employed to gather the data were In-depth Interview, FGD, Key Informants Interview, Personal Observation and Document analysis. Employing multiple data collection instruments helps the researcher to combine, strengthen and amend some of the inadequacies and for triangulation of the data.
Accordingly, in-depth interview were used as the main data gathering instruments, whereas FGD, observation and document analysis were employed to enrich the data acquired all the way via in-depth Interview. Thus, each method was consigned and tied to particular participants of the study and to specific research questions.
In-depth interview is one of the main data collection instrument used by the researcher to obtain primary data. The reason to select in-depth interview by the researcher is; it is very effective in assessing different dimension of gender based violence. In addition to this, as it has been stated, human rights research depends mainly on victims’ voice this can be addressed through in-depth interviews because it helps them to express their experience from various standpoint:
In-depth interviews are useful for learning about the perspectives of individuals. They are also an effective qualitative method for getting people to talk about their personal feelings, opinions, and experiences. In-depth interviews are also especially appropriate for addressing sensitive topics that people might be reluctant to discuss in a group setting.
Hence, in order to achieve the objective of the study i.e. examining gender-based violence against female refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp, in-depth interview was conducted with eighteen female refugees who fulfilled the criteria stated earlier. Besides, in conducting the qualitative interviewing the researcher used some questions related to the participants’ background information and general condition of living in Ethiopia as warm-up topics which in turn pave the way to discuss openly the major issues of gender based violence against female refugees. Similarly, by translating questions from English to Tigrigna attempt made to make the questions understandable and clear to each interviewee. Subsequently, the researcher creates effective communication and understanding with the informants.
Initially, the respondents were approached and asked if they will agree to be interviewed on the research that will conduct on gender based violence against female refugee in Mai Ayni Refugee camp. Moreover, necessary procedures such as: explaining the purpose of the research, arrangement of time and place, and promising the confidentiality of the information were carried out before the interview sessions.
Moreover, in the process of data collection through interview, a tape recorder was used after securing the consent of the respondents. However, during the study one of the challenge was the issue of recording interviews; some Interviewees were not feeling comfortable in the use of tape-recorder. Consequently, taking into considerations this fact and given the sensitivity of the issue, while majority of interview were recorded, for some interview the researcher made detail hand written notes for recording each interviews.
Moreover, the researcher selects Focus Group Discussion for identifying group norms and discovering variety within the camp. In addition to this, it also elicits information on a range of norms and opinion in short period of time. Moreover, FGD are especially effective for capturing information about social norms and the variety of opinions or views within a population and hence, the richness of FGD data emerges from the group dynamic and from the diversity of the group.
Also, it is primarily chosen for the purpose of authenticating and verifying data gathered from other sources and adding depth to the results collected by in-depth interview. During FGD issues such as prevalence, causes and consequences of gender based violence against female refugees and other relevant questions were discussed.
On the other hand, gaining adequate qualitative data meant that research participants should be pre-selected based on their level of knowledge, experience and articulation in a study of such sensitive nature. Hence, this instrument was employed to gather data from those who have knowledge on the topic because of their organization and position.
Interview guideline for key informants was specifically focus on the information about the prevalence, cause and consequences of gender based violence in the camp and the general situation of female refugees in the camp. Interviews and discussions lasted on the average forty-five minutes. Consequently , different key informants were included in the study. UNHCR officials, ARRA officials, legal experts, refugee representatives and health officers were deliberately selected and interviewed due to their interaction with refugees.
Document analysis was also used to gather necessary information about gender based violence against female refugees, and to strengthen the data obtained through in-depth interview, FGD, key informants interview. Apart from regional and international conventions, proclamations and other secondary sources, only two secondary documents were collected from the research area. This is due to lack of willingness of the concerned bodies to release secondary documents.
Finally, making a field visit to the case study i.e. Mai Ayni refugee camp creates an opportunity for direct observations and hence, the researcher observe relevant factors. In qualitative research personal observation is also useful for gaining an understanding of the physical, social, and cultural, contexts in which study participants live. Consequently, location of the camp, lighting, facilities and other relevant factors were observed.
Regarding the structure of personal observation , in order to investigate gender-based violence in Mai Ayni refugee camp non-participant personal observation has been done. The researcher was carried out his observation by using observation lists; this helped the researcher to plan when, how and where will be observed the overall activities. The data of observation were recorded by taking notes continuously.
3.6. Data Analysis
The data gathered through various sources were analyzed systematically in order to increase the reliability, credibility and validity of the research findings. As a result, data which obtained via In-depth interview, Focus Group Discussions, Key informants interview, and Personal observations were analyzed by making use of descriptions, interpretations more importantly by making summarization of the data. Moreover, the data obtained through the aforementioned methods of data collection were organized and harmonized with the objectives of the research and in line with the ongoing interpretation of the data.
3.7. Ethical Consideration
Realizing the voluntary consent of human subjects is absolutely essential. Thus, ensuring the willingness of all research participants was given priority in the process of data collection. Moreover, the ethical principles of confidentiality and respect are especially relevant in the research field of gender based violence, due to the traumatic and sensitive nature of the subject material. During data collection from research participant, the objective of the study was explained to research participants, and they were told in advance that they have a right to withdraw from the research process at any time.
Hence, assuring participants what they say will be kept in confidence is important for earning their trust and so as for eliciting adequate and accurate data. Besides, the researcher assured the confidentiality of information, and therefore, no harm to them. Generally, the importance of maintaining confidentiality was addressed with high emphasis during collecting of data. Besides, in the process of data collection through in-depth interview and FGD, the researcher was asked the consent of the interviewees to use tape recorder. The researcher generally place due care for ethical considerations in gathering and processing the data.
 Heise, L. Ellsberg, M, Gottmoller. 2002. A Global Overview of Gender Based Violence: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 78 Suppl. 1, S5–S14, pp.1-10.
 See, Article 1 of UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/ RES/48/104) New York, 20 December, 1993.
 Richard Pirre, et al. 2006. Human Rights in the World Community Issues and Action : Third edition, University of Pennsylvania, p.137.
 See, Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 28 July 1951, 189 UNTS 137 (Herein after referred to as, CSR)
 UNHCR. 2012. Global Trends, a Year of Crisis: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, Switzerland, p.2.
 Ibid, p.2.
 UNHCR. 2013 . UNHCR Country Operations Profile: Ethiopia: Accessed from : http://www.unhcr.org, on January, 29, 2013.
 Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs. 2012. Eritrean Refugees, Mai Ayni Camp Population Update : Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs, p.3.
 Population Council. 2008. Sexual and Gender Based Violence in Africa: Literature Review: Population Council, Nairobi, Kenya p.7.
 UNIFEM. 2007. Fact Sheet Violence against Women Worldwide: United Nations Development Fund for Women, New York, USA, p.2.
 WHO. 2012. Violence against Women: Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence against Women : Accessed from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs239/en/, January 12, 2013.
 Katrina Roth. 2005. Gender-Based Violence Legal Aid : A participatory toolkit ARC International GBV in Conflict-Affected Settings : United States of America, pp.6-10.
 Amnesty International. 2011. After shocks: Women Speak out against Sexual Violence in Haiti’s Camps: Amnesty International: Accessed from: http://www.amnesty.org, January 13, 2013.
 Bart de Bruijn. 2009. Living Conditions and Well-being of Refugee : United Nations Development Programme Human Development Research paper, p.14.
 Ibid , p.11.
 Rashida Manjoo, Calleigh McRaith. 2010. Gender-Based Violence and Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Area: Cornell Law School and the Cornell International Law Journal, pp.14-18.
 Mary Jennings, Sherry Mc.Lean. 2005. Gender Based Violence Study : Consortium of Irish Human Rights, Humanitarian and Development Agencies & Development Cooperation Ireland, pp.6-9.
 Ganeshpanchan, Zinthiya. 2005. Domestic and Gender Based Violence among Refugees and Internally Displaced Women : Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, p.4.
 Ibid , p.4.
 See, Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s Program. 2005. Report on the High Commissioner’s Five Commitments to Refugee Women. EC/55/SC/CRP.17, p.5
 See, United Nations Department of Public Information United: Women and Violence : Violence against Refugee and Displaced Women: Accessed from: http://www.un.org/rights/dpi1772e.htm, January, 2013.
 Angela Parcesepe, et al . 2008. Using the Neighborhood Method to Measure Violence and Rape in Ethiopia: Columbia University’s Program on Forced Migration and Health, Columbia University, Mialman School of Public Health, p.3.
 International Medical Corps. 2011. Gender-Based Violence Assessment in Somali Refugee Camps-Dolo Ado, Ethiopia , International Medical Corps, pp.2-4.
 Ibid , p.2.
 1. Melak Mengistab. 2012. Gender Based Violence against Female Students in Higher Institutions of Ethiopia : MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa. 2. Selamawit Tesfaye. 2007. Denial of rights, Human Rights Abuses and Violence against Domestic Workers in Some Selected Areas of Addis Ababa: MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University. 3. Elizabeth Amade. 2008. Sexual Abuse of Visually Impaired Female Students in Sebeta School for the Blind, Oromia Region : MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa. 4 Yilma Hirpa. 2007. Sexual Abuse among Female Street Children, the Case of Lideta Sub City , Addis Ababa: MA Thesis, Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa University.
 Women’s Refugee Commission. 2012 . In Search of Safety and Solutions: Somali Refugee Adolescent Girls at Sheder and Aw Barre Camps, Ethiopia : Women’s Refugee Commission, pp.1-9.
 Seble Daniel. 2008. Being a Refugee, Case Studies of Somali Refugee Women in Addis Ababa: MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
 International Rescue Committee is an international non-governmental organization which primarily engaged on addressing gender based violence cases in Mai Ayni refugee camp.
 UNHCR. 2003. Guidelines for Prevention and Response: Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons : United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees , p.18 .
 Ibid. p.19.
 Jeanne Ward. 2002. If Not Now, When? : Addressing Gender-based Violence in Refugee, Internally Displaced, and Post-conflict Settings a Global Overview: The Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium, p.8.
 UNHCR. Guidelines for Prevention and Response …, supra , footnote 31, p.16.
 Ibid, p.17 .
 Johnson, Tina. 2006. Gender Based Violence: Journal of Common Wealth and Judge Association, Vol.15, No.3, pp. 22-30.
 Baker, L. 2007. Gender-based Violence Case Definitions : Towards Clarity in Incident Classification: International Research Committee, circulated paper, p.1.
 Heise, Lori, Mary Ellsberg et al. 1999. Ending Violence against Women : Population Reports, Volume XXVII, Number 4, Series L, No.11, the Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Maryland, USA, p.2.
 Dennis.V, Karolina. et al. (ed.). 2007. Gender Matters: Manual on Gender-Based Violence Affecting Young People: Council of Europe, Budapest, Hungary, p.43.
 Ibid , p. 43.
 Ellsberg, Mary et al . 1999. Domestic Violence and Emotional Distress among Nicaraguan Women: Results from a Population-Based Study: American Psychologist, pp.30-36.
 Dennis.V, Karolina. V et al . Gender Matters …, supra, footnote 39, p.43.
 See, U.N. Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1992) (General Recommendation No. 19), paragraph 6.
 See, Art.1 of UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women.
 See, Art.2 of Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women: Violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not be limited to, the following: ( a ) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation; ( b ) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution; ( c ) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.
 See, Paragraph 114-116 of Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, Fourth World Conference on Women Beijing, China 4-15 September 1995.
 See, paragraph 4 of the Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2003/45 on Elimination of Violence against Women, in which it added that ‘Economic Exploitation’ as one form of gender based violence.
 UNHCR. Guidelines for Prevention and Response …, supra , footnote 31, p.17.
 National Sexual Violence Resource Center. 2004. Global Perspectives on Sexual Violence: Findings from the World Report on Violence and Health: National Sexual Violence Resource Center, p.15.
 WHO. 2012. Fact sheets: Violence against Women Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence against Women: Accessed: from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs239/en/, December, 2012.WHO, Fact sheet N°23.
 UNHCR. Guidelines for Prevention and Response …, supra , footnote 31, p.17.
 Ibid, p.18.
 Dennis V. Gender Matters, a Manual on…, supra, footnote 39, p.57.
 UNHCR. Guidelines for Prevention and Response …, supra , footnote 31, p.17.
 Ibid , p.17.
 WHO. 2005. Multi-country study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women: Executive Summary of Initial Results on Prevalence, Health Outcomes and Women’s Responses : WHO, Geneva, p.14.
 UNHCR. Guidelines for Prevention and Response …, supra , footnote 31, p.19.
 Technische Zusammenarbiet. 2003. Ending Violence against Women and Girls Reduction and prevention of gender-based violence as a contribution to the protection of human rights and to development: GTZ, Germany, p.15.
 Kimberly Gibbons, Tina Johnson. 2003. Integrated Approaches to Eliminating Gender-based Violence: Gender Management System Series, Commonwealth Secretariat Marlborough House Pall Mall, London, United Kingdom, p.6.
 Ibid , p.6 .
 Jewkes R. 2002. Violence against Women III: Intimate Partner Violence, Causes and Prevention : Gender and Health Group, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa, p. 359.
 FAO. 2010. Gender-Based Violence and Livelihood Interventions: Focus on populations of Humanitarian Concern in the Context of HIV and AIDS Guidance note , FAO field studies in Kenya and Uganda : FAO, Rome, p.13.
 Ibid , p.14.
 Fleishman, J. 2003. Fatal Vulnerabilities: Reducing the Acute Risk of HIV/Aids among Women and Girls: Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C, USA, p.14.
 UNGA. 2006. In-depth study on all forms of violence against women : Report of the Secretary-General, UN doc., A/61/122/Add, p.32.
 Krug EG et al. (ed.). 2002. World report on violence and health: World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, pp.31-34.
 UNGA. In-depth Study on All Forms of …, supra footnote 65, p.28.
 Krug EG et al . World Report on Violence and Health …, supra , footnote 66, p.156.
 WHO. Multi-Country Study …, supra , footnote 56, p.9.
 Ibid , p.9.
 Krug EG (ed.). World Report on Violence and Health …, supra footnote 66.
 Jewkes, R. Violence against Women III …, supra footnote 61, pp.1423-1429.
 Krug EG. World Report on Violence and Health …, supra footnote 66.
 Heise, Lori, Mary Ellsberg, et al . Ending Violence against Women..., supra footnote 38, pp.13-36.
 Reynolds, M.W., Peipert, J.F., Collins, B. 2000. Epidemiologic Issues of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexual Assault Victims : Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, pp.54-57.
 Alessandra Guedes. 2004. Addressing gender Based Violence from the Reproductive Health Sector : A Literature Review and Analysis : USAID, Washington Dc., USA, p.1.
 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Networks. 2005. Broken Bodies, Broken Dreams: Violence against Women Exposed : OCHA, IRIN, p.186.
 Ibid p.186.
 UNHCR. Guidelines for Prevention and Response …, supra footnote 31, p.23.
 GTZ. Ending Violence against Women and Girls..., supra footnote 58, p.15.
 Donovan, Paula. 2002. Rape and HIV/AIDS in Rwanda : the Lancet Supplement Vol. 360, pp.17-18.
 The Advocates for Human Rights. 2009. A House with Two Rooms: Final Report of the Liberian Truth &
Reconciliation Commission Diaspora Project: The Advocates for Human Rights, Minneapolis, USA.
 Rashida Manjoo. Gender-Based Violence and Justice in …, supra footnote 18, pp.14-18.
 Ibid, p.17.
 UNHCR. Guidelines for Prevention and Response …, supra footnote 31, p.24.
 Rashida Manjoo. Gender-Based Violence and Justice …, supra footnote 18, p.15.
 Andrew Morrison, Mary Ellsberg, et al . 2005. Addressing Gender-Based Violence in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: A Critical Review of Interventions: World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3438, p.11.
 See, United Nations Secretary General Campaign to End Violence against Women. 2009. Violence against women : UN Department of Public Information, DPI/2546A, p.2.
 Susan Ramsay (ed.). 2005. Strengthening Women’s Rights: Ending Violence against Women and Girls–Protecting Human Rights: GTZ, Germany, p.26. According to this study victim of gender-based violence also spend less time working or tend to have been less productive and hence, these women are often unable to support their families economically. For instance, a study in Managua (Nicaragua) concluded that abused women earn over 40% less than women who have no experience of violence. The study also found that 16% of a representative survey on domestic violence in Cambodia reported they had lost income as a result of domestic violence.
 GTZ. Ending Violence against Women and Girls..., supra footnote 58, p.16.
 Ibid , p.16.
 Erika Feler, Frances Nicholas. 2003. Refugee Protection in International Law: University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, p. 3.
 See, Art.1 of CSR.
 See, Art.1 (1) Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa ( Adopted on 10 September 1969 by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government. CAB/LEG/24.3. It entered into force on 20 June 1974.). Moreover, Art.1 (2) of the convention stated that the term “refugee” shall also apply to : “ any person compelled to leave his/her country owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality”.
 See, Refugee Proclamation No. 409/2004 of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Federal Negrait Gazeta No 54, July 2004.
 See, Art. 35 (1), of CSR.
 See, Art. 35 (1) of CSR which stated that “Cooperation of the national authorities with the United Nations” reads: “The Contracting States undertake to co-operate with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, or any other agency of the United Nations which may succeed it, in the exercise of its functions, and shall in particular facilitate its duty of supervising the application of the provisions of this Convention.”
 See, Paragraph 116 of Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, China 4-15 September 1995.
 Marie Vlachoud, Lea Biason (ed.) 2005. Women in an Insecure World : Violence against Women Fact, Figure and Analysis : Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, Geneva, Switzerland, p.16.
 UNHCR. 2002. Sexual Violence and Exploitation: The Experience of Refugee Children in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone : UNHCR, Note for Implementing and Operational Partners by UNHCR and Save the Children United Kingdom, pp.3-19.
 Ibid, pp.18.
 Marie Vlachoud, Lea Biason. Women in an Insecure World..., supra footnote 99, pp.4-21.
 Ibid , pp.4-21.
 Bart de Bruijn. Living Conditions and Well-being of Refugee …, supra footnote 15, p.16.
 Marie Vlachoud, Lea Biason. Women in an Insecure World..., supra footnote 99, p.16.
 Barbara Harrell-Bond. 2009. Are Refugee Camps Good for Children? New Issues in Refugee Research : Working Paper No. 29 UNHCR, Geneva.
 UNHCR 2013. UNHCR Country Operations Profile…, supra footnote 7.
 Women’s Refugee Commission. 2011. Examining the Link between Gender-Based Violence and Livelihoods in Displacement Settings: Case Studies: Ethiopia & Kenya : Women’s Refugee Commission of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, p.38.
 Ibid, p.38.
 UNHCR. UNHCR Country Operations Profile…, supra footnote 7.
 Angela Parcesepe, et al . Using the Neighborhood …, supra footnote 24, p.3.
 Women’s Refugee Commission. In Search of Safety and Solution…, supra footnote 28, pp.1-13.
 Ibid , pp.1-13.
 IASC. 2005. Guidelines for Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Settings : Focusing on Prevention and Response to Sexual Violence in Emergencies: IASC, Geneva, pp.1-10.
 See, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. Res. 217A, at 71, U.N. GAOR, U.N. Doc A/810 (Dec. 12, 1948).
 See, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of December 16, 1966, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force March 23, 1976.
 Although ICCPR and UDHR both do not explicitly refer to gender based violence against women, sexual violence has been interpreted as falling under the prohibition against discrimination or inequality in the ICCPR and UDHR. Each instrument requires States parties to take affirmative action to give effect to the rights enumerated. In this regard, one can mention Art.2, 7, 16 and 25 of UHDR which prohibits different forms of gender based violence indirectly. Similarly, Art. 3, 14, 24, and 26 are among the articles of ICCPR in which in one way or other prevent any kind of discrimination.
 See, Art. 2(1) of the UDHR, “everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin (…)”. Also, Art.7 adds that “ all are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law.” Similarly, Art.2 (1) of the ICCPR, states that: “Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind , such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” In addition, according to Art.3 of the Covenant, States must ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the ICCPR.
 See, Art.19 of Convention on the Rights of the Child, G.A. Res. 44/25, U.N. Doc. A/RES/44/25 (Nov. 20, 1989), Art.19 of CRC stated that States parties requires to “take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.”
 See, Art.22(1), CRC which states that “States parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee receive appropriate protection in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the States are parties”.
 See, Art.2 of Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (Hereinafter referred as, CEDAW), G.A. Res. 34/180, U.N. Doc. A/RES/34/180 (Dec. 18, 1979)
 See, CEDAW General Recommendation 19, 1(1992), according to this Recommendation discrimination includes gender-based violence, that is, violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or that affects women disproportionately. It includes acts that inflict physical, mental or sexual harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion and other deprivations of liberty. Gender-based violence may breach specific provisions of the Convention, regardless of whether those provisions expressly mention violence”.
 See, Art.2 (f) of CEDAW which obligates States “to take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices, which constitute discrimination against women”.
 See, Art.8-10 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, G.A. Res. 54/4, art. 1, U.N. Doc. A/RES/54/4 (Oct. 15, 1999) it creates an inquiry mechanism and hence, parties may permit the Committee to investigate report on and make recommendations on “grave or systematic violations” of the Convention.
 Alice Edwards. 2009. Displacement, Statelessness, and Questions of Gender Equality and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women : Background paper prepared for a joint United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women seminar, United Nations, New York, p.64.
 See, Art.3-4 of Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Banjul).
 See, Art.16 of African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child art. 16, Nov. 29, 1999, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/24.9/49.
 Ethiopia ratified: CEDAW in Sep 10, 1981, CRC in May 14, 1991, ICCPR in Jun 11, 1993, and African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child in 2 Oct 2002.
 See, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 1995, “Proclamation No.1/1995: A Proclamation to Pronounce the Coming into Effect of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia,” Federal Negarit Gazetta, 1st Year, No.1, Addis Ababa, 21st of August, 1995, article 9(4) stated that international agreements ratified by Ethiopia are an integral part of the law of the land. Article 13(2) elucidates that the fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in the constitution shall be interpreted in a manner that conforms to the principles of international human rights instruments adopted by Ethiopia.
 See, Art.35 of the 1995 FDRE Constitution, According to Art. 35(4) the State shall enforce the right of women to eliminate harmful laws, customs and practice that caused bodily and mental harm.
 See, the 2005 Criminal code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia; Federal Negarit Gzeta, Vol. 1.(Art., 555, 556, 557, 558, 560 and 564)
 Women’s National Policy was formulated and adopted in 1993 in order to address gender inequality. Also, National institutional machineries were established at federal, regional and Woreda (district) levels to implement the policy. In addition, the Women’s Affairs Office has been reestablished as a full-fledged Ministry in October 2005 with the duties and responsibilities of ensuring participation and empowerment of women in political, economic, social and cultural matters. Moreover, the civil servant proclamation No.515/2007 addresses different forms of gender based violence mainly those occurred at work place.
 See, Paragraph two of the preamble of Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women.
 See, Art.2 of Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women.
 See, Art.4 of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women which stated that: “States should condemn violence against women and should not invoke any custom, tradition or religious consideration to avoid their obligations with respect to its elimination. States should pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating violence against women...”
 See, the U.N. Econ. & Soc. Council, Comm. On Human Rights, Report on the 50th Session, at 143, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1994/13 (Jan. 31-Mar. 11, 1994). The United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women was appointed to “Seek and receive information on violence against women, its causes and consequences from governments, treaty bodies, specialized agencies, other special rapporteurs” and to “recommend measures, ways and means, at the national, regional and international levels, to eliminate violence against women and its causes, and to remedy its consequences.”
 See, the Vienna Conference on Human Rights (1993), the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women (1995), the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (1994), and the Southern African Development Community’s Declaration on Gender and Development (1997).
 Cultural Orientation. 2010 . Cultural Orientation: Cultural Orientation Resource Center, Center for Applied Linguistics Overseas CO Program Highlight, p.1.
 Robert K.Yin. 2011. Qualitative from Start to Finish : a division of Guilford, New York, USA.
 Natasha Mack, et al, 2005 . Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide: Family Health International, USA, pp.1-10.
 Catherine Dawson. 2007. A Practical Guide to Research Method : How to content a division of how to Books, Begbroke, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp.33.
 Kim y. Slote, Carrie Cuthbert et al. 2005. Battered Mothers Speak out: Participatory Human Rights Documentation as a Model for Research: SAGE, p.1376.
 Ibid , p.1376.
 Catherine Dawson. A Practical Guide to Research Method …, supra footnote 141, p.34.
 C.R. Kothari. 2004. Research Methodology Methods and Techniques : New Age International, New Age International, p.59.
 Administration for Refugee Returnee Affairs. Eritrean Refugee …, supra footnote, 9.
 Natasha Mack, et al. Qualitative Research Methods , supra footnote 142, pp.1-10.
 Natasha Mack, et al. Qualitative Research Methods ..., s upra footnote 142, p.52.
 Uwe Flick, Ernst von Kardorff et al. 2000. A Companion to Qualitative Research : Rowohlt Ttaschenbuch Verlag GmbH, Reinbek bei SAGE, Hamburg, pp.6-10.
 Natasha Mack, et al. Qualitative Research Methods ..., supra footnote 142, p.14.
 Ellsberg Mary, Lori Heise. 2005. Researching Violence against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Advocates : Center for Health and Gender Equity WHO, Washington, DC.