From Conflict to Peace. Rehabilitation Process in the Phase of Transforming Conflict - The Case of Northern Ireland

©2018 Academic Paper 215 Pages


The problem of Northern Ireland is a struggle for sharing power between the Catholics and the Protestants. The structural and basic reasons of the problem have played a very important role in the evolution of it towards civil war. The most important basic reason underlying it is mutual "distrust" between parties in Northern Ireland. On this regard, some necessary steps are to be taken for the stability of the peaceful environment established after the conflict. The normalization of the society and the making of the relations between groups transparent, constitute the "rehabilitation" process itself. Rehabilitation process ensures the continuation of confidence building in schools, helps with the matter of winning future generations, and also plays an important role in ensuring confidence building in institutions.
In sum the subject of this study is addressing the contributions of the rehabilitation as the protection of peace, to the social reconciliation process as formed by the societies living in Northern Ireland; and its continuation by discussing the rehabilitation process with reference to the example of Northern Ireland in the phase of transforming conflict. One of the main research questions of this study is to present the contribution of the rehabilitation process on peace within the context of conflict administration. In the first part of this book, the stage of rehabilitation in the development process of conflict administration is discussed. In the second part of this book, the structural reasons of conflict will be approached and Belfast Agreement, which can be described as a reconciliation document of parties, will be analysed. The third part is focused on how the results of the application of rehabilitation activities that are foreseen in the in the process of transforming the problem of Northern Ireland are obtained.


Table Of Contents

It is possible to encounter conflict as a situation in every way of life. While its lexical meaning
creates negative perceptions, conflict can also provide positive results if managed well. In
other words it is not conflict in itself as a negative phenomenon but rather its mismanagement
that produces negative results. As one of the common kinds of conflicts, the aforementioned
situation is valid for ethnic conflicts as well. This is because ethnic conflicts constitute one of
the biggest obstacles against ensuring societal reconciliation, being a conclusion of societal
segregation. Hence, removing ethnic conflicts by correctly managing them can also mean the
establishment of the previously unpractical societal peace and reconciliation. Herein
termination of ethnic conflicts and their transformation is only possible through removal of
structural and root causes which cause it.
Machiavelli and Clausewitz significantly contributed to the development of the Western
method for analysing conflicts. As counterpart, Sun Tzu contributed the Eastern method of
evaluating conflict to the literature. In addition, Karl Marx and Adam Smith, by emphasizing
class struggle, brought the subject matter of conflict into academic discussion. Similarly
Kenneth Waltz, in his work entitled Man, the State and War, written in 1959, puts an emphasis
on three levels analysis: i-) individual, ii-) state, iii-) system. In this regard, it can be derived
from Waltz's levels which examine the causes of war that the actors of conflict are the
individual, the people or the state, and the international system.
For each of these three levels of analyses there are three solution proposals. The individual-
based levels of analyses claim that conflict will be eased through the education of the
community. The state-based levels of analyses indicate that states can prevent conflicts by
The system-based conflict analyses claim that conflicts can be prevented through peaceful
international organizations. In the systematics of these three levels of analysis there is an
ascending interaction for the transformation process of conflict, from the system level to the
state level, and from the state level to the individual level.
Scott Burchill et.al., Uluslararasi likiler Teorileri, Ali Aslan, Trans. Muhammed Ali Acan, stanbul: Küre
Yayinlari, 2009, pg. 36.
Johan Galtung, "Peace by Peaceful Conflict Transformation ­ the TRANSCEND Approach", Charles Webel
and Johan Galtung (ed.), Handbook of Peace and Conflict Studies, USA: Routledge, 2007, pg. 19. Also see: Ho-
Won Jeong, Understanding Conflict and Conflict Analysis, ABD: SAGE Publications, 2008, pg. 43.

The conflict appeasing phase is also known as the period of truce. Since the termination of
physical violence is the basic objective of this phase, the focus is on the sustainability of non-
violence in the short term, rather than on sustained peace strategies.
As for the conflict
resolution phase, it is an assessment process regarding the main reasons for conflict. Hence,
since during the period claims and demands of both sides materialize, it is described as a highly
complex phase.
For this reason, a sustained, real peace cannot be established both in the
conflict appeasing and the conflict resolution phases. The conflict transformation phase is the
name of the phase which targets the social, economic, political and cultural transformation of
conflict, and it aims to remove the structural and root causes of conflict to achieve these.
conflict transformation phase is known in the literature as the "never-ending process".
One of
the issues that is often stressed in the conflict transformation phase is the concept of peace
building. Peace building is a controversial concept. So much so that there isn't even a consensus
on how to correctly type it (peace building, peace-building, peacebuilding) and what it entails.
Hence, it can mean different things according to the perspective of the person using it. In this
regard, experts that interpret the concept of "peace building" as the actions happened through the
intervention of foreign powers as part of a military peace operation focus on the post-conflict
and define peace building as the process where violence is directly terminated.
perspective further enlarges this concept to include all phases of conflict and aim for the
discovery of all root causes of conflict and eliminate structural injustice. This viewpoint is
more of a civilian one and makes an effort to eliminate deficiencies regarding education,
human rights and social justice in order to transform the conflict.
In societies that experience ethnic conflicts, rehabilitation is a process that needs a careful
approach as part of conflict transformation and ensuring sustainable peace. The rehabilitation
process aims to remove prejudices, stereotypes and discrimination among post-conflict
societies. Judgements, stereotypes and discrimination have become the concern of social
psychologists after the Hitler era. The focus of Allport's studies is the complicated relation
between political and historical situations.
As a matter of fact, priorities can differ in an
Nezir Akyeilmen, "Çatima Analizi: Hak-Temelli Stratejik Bir Bari Modeli Çerçevesi",
içinde Türkiye'nin Yakin Havzasindaki Devlet-çi Çatimalarin Analizleri, Ertan Efegil and Esra Pakin
Albayrakolu (Ed.), stanbul: Gündoan Yayincilik, 2015, pg. 53.
Akyeilmen, 2015, pg. 54.
Nezir Akyeilmen, "Çatima Yönetimi: Kavramsal ve Kuramsal Bir Analiz", Nezir Akyeilmen, (ed.), Barii
Konumak, Ankara: ODTÜ Yayinevi, 2013, pg. 19.
Peter Wallensteen, Understanding Coflict Resolution War, Peace and Global System, London: Sage, 2006, pg. 35.
Lisa Schirch, "Strategic Peacebuilding ­ State of the Field Peace Prints'", South Asian Journal of
Peacebuilding, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 2008, pg. 3.
Schirch, 2008, pg. 4.
Schirch, 2008, pg. 4.
Joaquim Pires Valentim, "Sherif's Theoretical Concepts and Intergroup Relations Studies: Notes for a Positive

academic study in different disciplines. While a sociologist focuses on the relation between
societal groups
, a psychologist concentrates on the internal conflicts of the individual, and a
political scientist on the political conflicts. This study, with reference to the basic parameters of
international relations, approaches how state and society can transform as a result of their
mutual interaction in the post-conflict phase. As part of transforming conflict, it can be said that
most of the academics who study the context hail from the social psychology and educational
psychology fields. This study aims to analyse the post-conflict rehabilitation phase through the
example of Northern Ireland with an international relations originated perspective. In doing that,
works of the authors such as Daniel Bar-Tal,
who aim to conceptualize such studies, will also
be employed.
Two societies in Northern Ireland: Catholic and Protestant societies. Due to the long and deep
inter-societal political conflict, these societies refrained from mutual interaction for decades.
The rehabilitation process is one of the tools which helped these two groups to interact and
integrate in the period after the Good Friday Agreement, the greatest step in solving the issue.
Allport emphasizes that interaction phases of intergroup communication and interpersonal
interaction theories constitute the most effective way of destroying prejudices.
As for the
post-conflict transformation phase, whether for peace building or for post-conflict structuring,
in transforming society and the units with the power to determine relations, rehabilitation has
an important function. Rehabilitation as a concept has transformed historically and today
contains an extensive scope of definition and activity.
Rehabilitation is first used during the 19th century to correct and educate criminals in prisons.
The aim of rehabilitation in this era was to cleanse criminals of their bad habits, and
rehabilitation entailed education and vocational training, in conjunction with the quasi-military
Interdependence", Psychologica, No.52, Vol. II, 2010, pg. 586.
Muzafer Sherif, et, al., "Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers Cave Experiment",
Experiment/pdf?dl&preview, Access date: 27.06.2015, pg. 5.
Daniel Bar-Tal, "From Intractable Conflict Through Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation: Psychological
Analysis", Political Psychology, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2000, pg. 363.
Sherif, et. al, Access date: 27.06.2015, pg. 3.
Donna Y. Ford, Multicultural Issues Gifted Underrepresentation and Prejudice--Learning From Allport and
Merton, Gifted Child Today, Vol. 36, No.1, pg. 65.
Rehabilitation Theory, pg. 831.

During the 20th century the term rehabilitation has started to be used for soldiers. In a way the
word has the meaning of normalisation and can be expressed as the period of integrating those
who cannot socialize into social life. In other words, rehabilitation also means that a better
comprehension of the
person, society and other units that needs to be rehabilitated.
Post-war rehabilitation was first
employed by the J. Freymond committee coordination in Switzerland with the aim of providing
a source for the rehabilitation of societies worn down by war. The most important part of this
project made in Switzerland is manifesting that reverence of human rights is actually important
in the long term for conflict transformation to establish stability.
The primary aim of post-conflict rehabilitation is to avert great conflicts by easing access to
needs, and transforming the mannerisms and behaviour of the parties.
rehabilitation overlaps with many subjects; beside prevention of conflict, peace building and
peace keeping, nearly all phases of conflict are closely connected to post-conflict
The countries where conflicts take place generally have an authoritarian past or are societies
ruled over by dictators in the past, which may mean veteran perceptions can provide
information regarding the trajectory of the post-conflict development process. This is because
the post-conflict structuring phase is a critical phase for the establishment of institutions and
hence it should proceed through safeguarding balances.
As one of the post-conflict
structuring phases, rehabilitation in a way means public relations; a state that understands its
public does not abstain from making necessary reforms and provides a voluntary synergy for
the implementation of decisions. Another meaning of rehabilitation is the vitalisation of civil
society. The concept of civil society is built upon the space between state and individuality.
In a way, the growth and survival of this space between state and individuality is a basic
indicator of a healthy society. On this regard, Northern Ireland is a case example for the field
of post-conflict rehabilitation studies.
Historically, Great Britain plays an important role at the heart of the Northern Ireland (Ulster)
John L. Todd , "Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science", Vol. 80,
Rehabilitation of the Wounded. ,Nov., 1918, pg. 1.
Jean-Jacques de Dardel Gustav, Gustenau Plamen Pantev, Post-Conflict Rehabilitation Lessons from South
East Europe and Strategic Consequences for the Euro-Atlantic Community, Viana, National Defence Academy
and Bureau for Security Policy at the Austrian Ministry of Defence in co-operation with PfP Consortium of
Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes, 2006, pg. 8.
Gustav and Pantev, 2006, pg. 14.
Gustav and Pantev, 2006, pg. 17.
Gustav and Pantev, 2006, pg. 57.
Gustav and Pantev, 2006, pg. 100.

issue. On this regard, with Henry II's declaration of himself as the Lord of Ireland with the
permission of The Pope in the 12th century, Britain's influence over Ireland increased;
subsequently, with the English settlement policy, English settlers emigrated to Ireland.
important reason why the issue became lasting is the Protestant-Catholic conflict that emerged
on top of Henry VII's assimilation policies to eradicate Catholicism.
The independence wish of the Catholics became evident during the First World War. With the
partition of the island into Belfast and Dublin governances the foundation of IRA (Irish
Republican Army) gathered speed.
Consists of Catholic volunteers, IRA became an
underground organization in the 1930s.
In addition, Sinn Féin became the political arm of
IRA. The exclusionary actions of the Belfast government towards Catholics caused Catholics
to fall behind on matters such as education and economy. The Protestant design of the political
system in ways that made themselves more active in Catholic majority areas caused Catholic
community to become under-represented. On the 30th of January 1972 the government
rigorously intervened to the protestors during a Catholic protest march and caused the death of
13 protestors, which caused IRA to increase its armed attacks.
As a result of the increasing
pressures, the conflict escalated as England tried to take more violent measures. On the year
1985 a very important agreement was reached between the governments of London and Dublin
to resolve the issue, and the belief that resolution will happen through dialogue was revealed.
While the peace talks that happened between the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom
were disrupted with IRA attacks, on 1995 the "Common Framework for the Future" document
was released. This document in a way meant that Northern Ireland was left to those who live in
Northern Ireland. As a result of the dialogue process on 10 April 1998 the Good Friday
Agreement (Belfast Agreement) was signed. Both the Common Framework for the Future
document and the Good Friday agreement played critical roles in the phase of transforming
conflict and made it easier for the sides to take social, economic and political decisions that
would make it easier to remove the causes of conflict. At the helm of the foundational reasons
of the problem in Northern Ireland is the mutual "distrust" of both sides. Both the Common
Framework for the Future document and the Good Friday agreement were vital to build up
trust between both sides in Northern Ireland.
Some firm actions have to be taken in order to
I. William Zartman, Northern Ireland: Understanding Conflict 2008 Student Field Trip to Northern Ireland,
Wahington, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, pg. 1.
Kismet Metkin, Murat Çemrek, "Kuzey rlanda: Bitmeyen Bir Bari Hikayesi", Nezir Akyeilmen, (ed.),
Barii Konumak, Ankara: ODTÜ Yayinevi, 2013, pg. 279.
Emin Gürses, Ayrilikçi Terörün Anatomisi IRA-ETA-PKK, stanbul, Balam Yayinlari, 2003, pg. 28.
Gürses, 2003, pg. 33.
Gürses, 2003, pg. 39.
Zartman, 2008, pg. 7.

establish a lasting peace environment. In this regard, mutual interaction between societies,
increase in communication and integration, and transitive relations between groups constitute
the phase of "rehabilitation" itself. At the start of rehabilitation activities in Northern Ireland is
the trust building process. Herein Northern Ireland police force, which played an important
role in causing conflict between the two sides in previous periods, plays an important role in
building trust and transforming conflict as of today.
As channels of communication and integration between Protestant and Catholic families were
closed down for long years, the possibility for the Catholics and Protestants to live together
was decreased and they were forced to live in different areas especially in terms of educational
institutions. In the post-conflict rehabilitation process in Northern Ireland it was intended for
Catholic and Protestant students to communicate more at school and in order to increase
integration projects were developed which enable for Protestants and Catholics to interact with
each other.
The rehabilitation process helps securing a generation of youth that internalizes the
idea of peace at school environments. Internationally supported projects which apply country-
wide and contain Belfast, which is described as the problematic area, help secure future
generations and play an important role in maintaining inter-institutional building of trust.
The Common Framework for the Future document and the Belfast Agreement create a
framework for the roadmap of the rehabilitation process. This framework indicates that the
government needs an inclusionary and inclusive identity policy in Northern Ireland and build
mechanisms that would ensure equity for the entire civil society. With the parliament
arrangement of 2007, a "power share" was established between the Protestants and Catholics in
Northern Ireland, thereby both sides of the conflict were judicially protected for the
rehabilitation process. It can be claimed that in its broadest sense the rehabilitation phase of the
Northern Ireland is the provision of a legal substructure that would enable Catholics and
Protestants to live together, therefore establish the predominance of a multi-cultural political
pluralism and support cultural diversity.
Our Common Future Project of 2005 is one of the biggest reforms made by the government
with the primary aim of co-existence of both sides. The years-long male-dominated concept of
armed conflict between the Catholic and Protestant sides essentially limited the role of women
in social life and caused them to remain in the background. With the Good Friday Agreement
Zartman, 2008, pg. 11.
Zartman, 2008, pg. 32.

equality for women and men was established; it cleared the way for further representation of
women. In this manner the process of rehabilitation also aims at integrating women to the social
Another important matter in the process of rehabilitation is the phase of integrating militants to
the society. The Good Friday Agreement foresaw especially the controlled release of convicted
IRA militants, and consequently re-apprehension of those who get involved in crime was
determined. The rehabilitation process does not only mean the release of convicts; it also
consists of resolutions for their issues of employment, education and health insurance.
It can be said that in the rehabilitation process a supervision mechanism is aimed for societal
interaction and the state-society relations through the Commission of Human Rights, Truth
Commissions and Watch Commissions. It can also be expressed that the rehabilitation process
can signify the re-establishment of the "social contract" between the sides, and maintenance of
reciprocal trust.
In sum, the subject matter of this work is the contributions of the rehabilitation process in the
phase of transforming conflict to peace keeping and making it sustainable for the societies that
live in Northern Ireland.
This study, by discussing the structural and root causes of the Catholic-Protestant conflict that
emerged in Northern Ireland, aims to reveal the contribution of the rehabilitation process to the
transformation of the Northern Ireland issue. One of the problematics of this study is to reveal
the contributions of the rehabilitation process to sustainable peace in the context of conflict
Every ethnic conflict has specific peculiarities; however, the Northern Ireland "rehabilitation
process" can offer a general framework for scholars of conflict management. Another aim of
the study is to help conceptualize the "rehabilitation" process with reference to the Northern
Ireland example, where an ethnic conflict has happened and the observed findings of its
rehabilitation process, which can be used for other ethnic conflicts.
Zartman, 2008, pg. 46.
Zartman, 2008, pg. 86.

The field of International Relations has a unique structure with inter-disciplinary features; on
this regard, the analysis of the structural and root causes of
a conflict and its resolution process can be illuminated by making use of the disciplines of
sociology, psychology, business administration, public administration and political science.
Another aim of this study is to conceptualize the rehabilitation process with a constructivist
perspective by associating the field of international relations with other fields like sociology,
social psychology, economics and history.
Literature Review
There are a number of studies in the foreign literature regarding the Northern Ireland issue.
Alvin Jackson, in his work entitled Home Rule an Irish History 1800-2000 interprets Home
Rule as a historical mistake. But in the work the needs and demands of the peoples of Ireland
that were instrumental for the emergence of Home Rule were inadequately discussed. While
Jackson profoundly examines the political developments that brought Home Rule into question
with reference to the historical perspective, the role social developments had on the evolution
of the period were discussed superficially.
A Military History of Ireland, written by Thomas
Barlett and Keith Jeffery, discusses the historical development of the Irish military culture and
traditions. There are similar issues in the works that approach the Northern Ireland issue with a
historical perspective. At the start of these issues are the reflections of the religious identities
and prejudices of their authors in the works. Barlett and Jeffery's work characterises some of
the wars as victories if the results are coherent with their religious identities.
Also, the works
discuss historical myths that can deepen the historical hostility between the Catholic and
Protestant peoples. It can be stated that the historical myths recited to the people by such works
that discuss the historical dimension of the Northern Ireland issue deeply affected both sides of
the conflict. Indeed, historical heroes are often addressed in the wall writings of both Belfast
and Ulster. To exemplify, it is written in a wall in Ulster that the historical mythical character
Cuchulainn is saving Ulster from the Catholics for two thousand years.
Thereby it can be said that historical myths are instrumental in the passing down of the
Northern Ireland issue from generation to generation and turning it into an identity war.
Another work that discusses Irish history is A Short History of Ireland by John QBeirne
Ronelagh. Another similar characteristic in the causes of ethnic conflicts is the argument of
which people came first to the disputed lands. On this regard, in his work Ronelagh produced a
Alvin Jackson, Home Rule An Irish History 1800-2000, New York: Oxford Press, 2003, pg. 11-13.
Thomas Bartlett, Keith Jeffery, A Military History of Ireland, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997, pg. 4.
Bartlett, Jeffery, 1997, pg. 5.

detailed account of when the Irish first came to the island.
It can be said that both sides' claim
on the historical heritage of Nothern Ireland hinders an analytical address of the issue. Hence,
most of the books that approach the historical perspective focus on the issues that happened
after the 19th century.
One of the works that connects the historical development of the Northern Ireland issue to the
20th century is the Armed Struggle the History of the IRA by Richard English. In this work
which discusses the IRA's development with its historical dimension, English did not focus on
the social, economic, religious elements of IRA's development. While English brings many
historical details regarding IRA to the academic literature, he approaches many social
developments from the perspective of his own identity, particularly with the civil rights march
in North Ireland.
The most important of the issues that come to light in historical works is
when the religious identities of writers substantially influence their approach. It can be said
that in his work English's religious identity affected his approach towards IRA.
Clive Walker, in his work entitled Terrorism and the Law, tackles the Northern Ireland issue on
the context of international law and withing the framework of terrorism. Walker, discusses IRA
is a terrorist organization. Because Walker only considers the issue along the lines of the
concept of terrorism, it causes him to rule out the structural and root causes of the issue.
It can
be stressed that the law perspective narrows down the Northern Ireland issue and limits it to the
contextual frameworks of "obedience" and "disobedience". In their work entitled Political
Terrorism, Alex P. Schmid and Albert J. Jongman analysed the Northern Ireland issue by
degrading it only to IRA and without bothering with other dimensions.
In the book entitled In Search of Ireland A Cultural Geography, edited by Brian Graham, the
structural and root causes of the Northern Ireland issue is discussed in detail. The work broadly
analyses the pluralistic structure of Northern Ireland and its differences in identity. However,
since the work is published before the Good Friday Agreement, it requires a reinterpretation in
the light of current affairs that established a peace environment.
Mike Morrissey and Marie Smyth have written about the transformation of the Northern Ireland
issue on the context of the phase of transforming conflict in their work entitled Northern Ireland
After the Good Friday Agreement. While this work describes with examples how the peace
John QBeirne Ronelagh, A Short History Of Ireland, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pg. 40.
Richard English, Armed Struggle the History of the IRA, New York: Oxford Press, 2003, pg. 150.
Clive Walker, Terrorism and the Law, New York: Oxford Press, 2011, pg. 481.
Alex P. Schmid, Albert j. Jongmen, Political Terrorism, USA: Transaction Publishers, 1988, pg. 218.
Brian Graham, In Search of Ireland A Cultural Geography, London and New York: Routledge, 1997,
pg. 5.

process enabled societal consensus and transformed the Northern Ireland issue
, it can be said
that it was not highly successful in contextualizing the rehabilitation process in Northern
Ireland. One of the most up-to-date works on the subject of sustainable peace is an article
entitled "National Youth Service: An Institution for Building and Sustaining Peace" by Donald
J. Eberly. However, the military-rooted author of the study causes him to prioritize state
building over other subjects.
In this regard there is need for a civilian perspective regarding
sustainable peace.
The general issues with the foreign literature regarding the Northern Ireland issue continues on
with the Turkish literature. The book written by Levent Özçatay entitled Kuzey rlanda and
IRA, Silahli Mücadeleden Siyasal Çözüme [Northern Ireland and IRA, from Armed Conflict to
Political Resolution]
is a book that addresses the historical development of the Northern Ireland
However, as the work analyses the period before the Good Friday Agreement, it did not analyse
the transformation phase of the conflict and the rehabilitation process. Another work written in Turkish
regarding the Northern Ireland issue is the article entitled "Etno-Dinsel Milliyetçilik Balaminda
rlanda Sorunu" [The Ireland Issue in the Context of Ethno-Religious Nationalism] written by Mesut
öhret. This article considers the Northern Ireland issue as a "nationalist" issue and does not focus on
the psychological issues that augmented the development of the problem.
In sum, in both Turkish and
foreign literature, the lack of sufficient studies that approach the Northern Ireland issue with a conflict
management method stands out, and there is practically no work regarding its "rehabilitation" process.
The resolution of the Northern Ireland issue is ingrained in the literature as the Western
conflict solving method. On this regard, there have been a number of works regarding the
Northern Ireland issue. A large proportion of these works disregard the structural causes of the
conflict and only consider its historical causes.
Another part of the works on Northern Ireland
consider its legal aspects.
Within the Turkish literature a large proportion of the works on the
Northern Ireland issue either take on its historical dimension, or make a mere conflict analysis.
Mike Morrissey, Marie Smyth, Northern Ireland After the Good Friday Agreement Victims, Grievance and
Blame, London: Pluto Press, 2002, pg. 3-20.
Donald J. Eberly, "National Youth Service: An Institution for Building and Sustaining Peace", in Arned
Forces and Coflict Resolution: Sociological Perspectives, Giuseppe Caforio, Gerhard Kümmel, Bandana
Purkayastha, UK: Emerald, 2008, pg. 383.
Levent Özçaatay, Kuzey rlanda ve IRA Silahli Mücadeleden Siyasal Çözüme, stanbul: Papirüs Yayinevi,
1998, pg. 201.
Mesut öhret, "Etno-Dinsel Milliyetçilik Balaminda rlanda Sorunu", nsan ve Toplum Bilimleri
Aratirmalari Dergisi, Vol.2, Issue:4, 2013, pg. 43.
Bakiniz, Ronelagh, 1999, pg. 57, English, 2003, pg. 155.
Walker, 2011, pg. 482.

Both in world and Turkish literature, works that consider the rehabilitation process on the
phase of transforming conflict in the Northern Ireland issue are quite limited. Hence, this study
aims to contribute to the literature by filling this gap through discussing the rehabilitation
process on the phase of transforming conflict. Another factor of importance is that it is a study
which discusses the rehabilitation process with reference to conflict management and observes
to what degree the available theoretical knowledge apply in practice.
Conflict is a natural part of our daily life. On this regard the most important cause of conflict is
accepted to be prejudices. In the development of family members exposed to prejudice, the
behaviour and attitudes to marginalize, humiliate and antagonize the other tend to increase.
The most important part of transforming conflict is the hypothesis that it will be achieved by
the removal of violence. In this context, transformation of the conflict assumes that
rehabilitation phase may help both sides to break down their prejudices and reorient their
attitudes. In other words, it is claimed that "peace" can be attained with the reconciliation of
both sides on some basic topics.
In this work it is assumed that the Northern Ireland post-conflict rehabilitation process started
with the Common Framework for the Future document and the Good Friday agreement at its
basis. Herein it is claimed that the increase of common areas between Catholics and Protestants
will ensure mutual interaction, communication and integration, which will positively affect the
peace process. Another important matter is that in the rehabilitation process it is assumed that
the reintegration of IRA militants and the civilians that were negatively affected by the conflict
into social life will positively affect the sustainability of peace.
One of the most extreme examples of separatist movements of Europe has happened in
Northern Ireland. Even though a denominational difference constitutes the basis of the
Northern Ireland issue, the basis of the issue remains to be the ethnic background and
denomination is a part of
the theoretical framework of this study takes shape around the
concept of rehabilitation with reference to international conflict analysis and conflict
management. Rather than focusing on historical periods, this study discusses how Catholic and
Protestant peoples that live in Northern Ireland can live together.
Kemal nat, Burhanettin Duran, Muhittin Ataman, (ed.) Dünya Çatima Bölgeleri ve Konulari, Ankara, Nobel
Yayinlari, Vol 1, 2010, pg. 655.

Research Question
What is role of the rehabilitation process of conflict management that is employed during the
conflict transformation phase in establishing real peace and its sustenance?
Correspondingly, is the rehabilitation phase a dynamic or a static process? Are rehabilitation
applications unique to the phase of transforming conflict, or does it have practical uses in other
phases as well? What are the contents of the Northern Ireland rehabilitation process and how
was it applied? To what extent those rehabilitation practices and tools applied in Northern
Ireland can set an example for other international conflict management processes? These will
be some of the questions that this study will answer.
In order to establish an extensive literature review regarding the post-conflict rehabilitation
process, this study has employed local and foreign newspapers, works written by
academicians, state officials and assessments of internet sources.
In terms of its methodology, For the first chapter entitled "Rehabilitation Process and
Theoretical Framework" and the second chapter entitled "Analysis of the Northern Ireland
Issue in the Context of Conflict Management," the study is prepared with reference to the
conflict management methodology by researching library databases, using library resources
and reviewing internet sources. For the third chapter of the study, entitled "Rehabilitation
Process in Northern Ireland," interviews made with Catholic and Protestant members of
society, policemen, civil administration officials were employed. In the chapter completed
projects in Northern Ireland were examined. Besides, for the large part of the study, the
Uppsala University's Uppsala Conflict Data Project was employed.
The first chapter of this study discusses the theoretical basis of the rehabilitation process by
discussing ontological and epistemological issues of conflict management. The second chapter
discusses structural causes of conflict and
analyses the Good Friday Agreement, which can be labelled as the reconciliation text between
the sides of the conflict. And lastly the third part discusses projected rehabilitation activities in
transforming the Northern Ireland issue.

Rehabilitation in the Phase of Transforming Conflict and Theoretical
Conflict in general is a negative concept and while it evokes violence this may not always be
the case. Some conflicts do not involve violence and can be the catalyst for societal change,
transformation and development. Such conflicts in general do not involve intense violence.
While Democratisation is a tool that can ensure the transformation of the state without
violence, most states have the tendency to not agree with the democratic transformation. When
the conflict trend of post-Cold War era is examined, internal conflicts (including civil wars)
show a tendency to increase. The causes for these conflicts can usually originate from the
power struggle of "states". Alongside this, conflicts can also arise from identity searches of
peoples and social injustices.
Vasquez claims that after great wars peace becomes
institutionalized and that it will nurture political systems as social constructions.
tend to arise due to the neglect of the social aspect of political systems.
As a kind of conflict, civil wars can harbour all imitated or modelled elements for
manufacturing conflict. In other words, causes such as official guardianship, open praise or
rewarding of murderers and such are among the influential elements for conflict
While conflicts may look to be over, they may leave a legacy for the post-
conflict era.
Rehabilitation in the phase of transforming conflict is an important step for the
prevention of the structural and root causes of conflict to pass on to the next generations. If
conflict is able to pass on to the next generations, it may allow for violence to gain support.
For this reason rehabilitation as part of transforming conflict is an important phase within the
discipline of conflict management. In this regard the rehabilitation concept that is to be
discussed in this study is twofold regarding the dimensions of analysis. The first dimension of
rehabilitation focuses on transforming the society as result of changing the individual. The
second dimension of rehabilitation consists of transformation of the state and the
establishment of a fair mode of power management. It is stressed that rehabilitation phase is a
transformation phase through the mutual interaction of the individual and the state.
Özden Selcen Sari, "Manus I. Midlarsky", in Sava Kuramlari, Ed. Erhan Büyükakinci, Ankara: Adres
Yayinlari, 2015, pg. 829.
Erhan Büyükakinci, "John A. Vasquez", in Sava Kuramlari, Ed. Erhan Büyükakinci, Ankara: Adres
Yayinlari, 2015, pg. 620.
Dane, Archer, Rosemary Gartner, "Bari Dönemi Kayiplari: Savaa Katilmayanlarin iddet çeren
Davanilarinda Savain Etkisi", Cogito, Ki Bahar 1996, Issue: 6-7, pg. 241.
Archer and Gartner, 1996, pg. 241.

Freud, who believed that the individual is violent by birth, claimed that the desire to kill is
active in the individual and the state, which causes a perpetual state of war.
As for
Machiavelli, humans are to be conciliated with or to be crushed; humans try to revenge
small-scale damages, but when the damage increases they do not; which concludes that:
When a human being is damaged it must be done in a way that would prevent the possibility
of revenge.
Kenneth Waltz assumes man to be evil and the basis of wars due to its competitive nature. In
other words, according to Waltz it is possible to change socio-political institutions but not the
human nature.
On the contrary; this study claims that being violent is not genetic or
instinctual; that there are causes which push the individual towards violence. Hence, in this
study instead of the term "correction" the term "rehabilitation" is preferred. This is because as
violence or aggression is not a disease but rise out of causes,
the term rehabilitation is
stressed to have the semantic depth which would ensure the removal of such causes of
conflict and allow both sides of the conflict to live together.
As Hobbes states, to get out of what is natural is the primary aim of reaching the civilian state.
Peoples that can succeed in living together with other people have developed the sentiment of
living together because they ensured the distribution of justice.
Kant names the situation
with no laws or a distribution of justice as "status naturalis." The question of what exists on
the opposite side of status naturals can be described as the status civilis. Civil wars can be
defined as a "status naturalis" where an upper authority that can contain all of society does not
exist, while indicating a process where no societal reconciliation exists. In the conditions of
status naturalist, the justice of sides do not constitute everyone, as such it is not distributed.
Transformation of conflict means the building of the civil situation as much as the
establishment of a distributed justice within status civilis conditions by the high authority.
Rehabilitation in the phase of transforming conflict aims to change the manners and attitudes
of the conflict sides through facilitating the needs of both sides to prevent great conflicts with
a repetitive nature.
Rehabilitation in the phase of transforming conflict overlaps with many
Doan Cücelolu, nsan ve Davranii Psikolojinin Temel Kavramlari, stanbul: Remzi Kitabevi, 2014, pg. 32.
Nicolos Machiavelli, Prens, Çev. Derya Karagöz, Ankara: Doruk Yayinlari, 2009, pg. 32.
Kenneth Waltz, nsan, Devlet, Sava, Teorik Bir Analiz, Ankara: Asil Yayinlari, 2009, pg. 17.
Archer and Gartner, 1996, pg. 248.
Ali Akay,"iddetin Balamindan Çikmak Üzere", Cogito, Ki Bahar 1996, Issue: 6-7, pg. 435.
Akay, 1996, pg. 430.
Akay, 1996, pg. 430.
Daniel Bar-Tal, Gemma H. Bennink, "The Nature of Reconciliation as an Outcome and as a Process", in From
Coclict Resolution to Reconcilitation, Yaacov Bar-Siman-Tov (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 2004,
pg. 20-21.

phases of conflict management such as conflict prevention, peace building and peace keeping.
In short, every stage of conflict is closely associated with rehabilitation.
Rehabilitation in the phase of transforming conflict faces two problems. The first is the
inadequate transformation on the international system level. In other words, rehabilitation in
the phase of transforming conflict is inconstant and open to change. The second is that human
factor plays an important role for rehabilitation in the phase of transforming conflict.
Rehabilitation of peoples affected by conflict actually gives an answer to many issues such as
respect to human rights, conflict resolution, and protection of civilian rights.
P. Terrence Hopman first talked about rehabilitation in 1999 within the post-conflict security building
discussions as a doctrinal content. Hopman defines rehabilitation as the recovery of problems.
While the European Union's structuring in the post-Cold War Balkans is presented as a successful
implementation of conflict management
, in real terms the first two positive results of democracy
and economic integration developed in Ireland and Spain.
Moldova can be an example of rehabilitation in the phase of transforming conflict. The
Moldovan example shows us the importance of mutual agreement between conflict sides.
There was no agreement that would terminate the conflict between both sides in Moldova
however Northern Ireland was advantageous regarding the matter. Because the "Good Friday
Agreement" of 1998 played a very important role in transforming conflict.
This section of the study will discuss the emerging process of the field of conflict
management. Subsequently, the structural and root causes of conflict will be discussed. With
reference to the conflict management phases, an emphasis will be made on the tools and
effects of the rehabilitation process on the phase of transforming conflict.
Ferenc, Gazdag,"EU and OSCE Approaches to Post-Conflict Rehabilitation", in Post-Conflict Rehabilitation
Lessons from South East Europe and Strategic Consequences for the Euro-Atlantic Community Jean-Jacques de
Dardel, Gustav Gustenau, Plamen Pantev (ed.), Vienna and Sofia: National Defence Academy and Bureau for
Security Policy at the Austrian Ministry of Defence in co-operation with PfP Consortium of Defence Academies
and Security Studies Institutes, April 2006, pg. 75.
Gazdag, 2006, pg. 75.
Nicu Popescu, "Post Conflict Rehabilitation in Moldova", in Post-Conflict Rehabilitation Lessons from South
East Europe and Strategic Consequences for the Euro-Atlantic Community, Jean- Jacques de Dardel Gustav
Gustenau Plamen Pantev (ed.) Vienna and Sofia: National Defence Academy and Bureau for Security Policy at
the Austrian Ministry of Defence in co-operation with PfP Consortium of Defence Academies and Security
Studies Institutes, April 2006, pg. 206.

1.1 The Emergence of the Discipline of Conflict Management: Its Relation with
the Theory of International Relations
Societies move in an organisational structure. In this regard the word organisation is not an easy
one to define. Actually this point of view tries to visualise the means of existence of conflict in
an organisational structure.
Such that the domain of conflict, be it a family or a factory, is a body of relations between
The basis of conflict from an integrative point of view starts with a feeling of
displeasure that an individual feels regarding the environment they live in. This point of view
actually reflects the needs and desires of those who cannot come to terms with their immediate
environment. Those who are content with their environment disregard the issue of embracing
similar thought criteria, which is to say 'power'. This is why conflicts have never ended
throughout the entire human history.
Apart from an abstract structure in which an individual
willingly hand over its own rights, power can also mean a power-sharing conflict between two
sides. However, trying to read the causes of conflict only along the lines of controlling the
power or economic interests may rule out conflicts that arose out of "value" or "identity"
Weissmann and Swanström, discuss the sole definition of conflict in terms of violence
(behavior) or hostility (manner).
For Mitchell, the structure of conflict is trilateral: manners,
behaviours and situations. This trilateral structure is often employed to analyse military and
political conflicts. According to Mitchell, this trilateral structure (body of relations that happen
in between manners-behaviours-situations) draws the line of conflict. For example, this trilateral
structure of Mitchell also contains all reasons for conflict. The structure is a loop and a
deficiency in any of them may trigger a conflict. Herein Mitchell's attempt to explain the
structure of conflict in basic terms and without taking into consideration the economic, social
and humanitarian consideration caused him to face with criticism.
In another definition, conflict is defined as the deliberate, planned actions and behaviour
perpetrated by a group or an individual to prevent another group or individual from reaching
their aims.
As can be seen here, conflict also contains conscious steps. According to
UNESCO, conflict starts at human memory and is also built on human memory.
Mustafa Atiker, Çatisma, 2006 ­ 35 / 35, Konya Ticaret Odasi Etüd Aratirma Servisi, pg. 1.
Ho Won Jeong, Understanding Coflict and Coflict Analysis, ABD: Sage, 2008, pg. 3.
Jeong, 2008, pg. 5.
Niklas, L.P. Swanström, Mikael S. Weissmann, Conflict, Conflict Prevention and Conflict Management and
Beyond: a Conceptual Exploration, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program ­ A Joint
Transatlantic Research and Policy Center Johns Hopkins University-SAIS, Summer 2005, pg. 7.
Swanström, Weissmann, 2005, pg. 8.
Atiker, 2006, pg. 2.
"Official Website of UNESCO", http://www.unesco.org/education/nfsunesco/pdf/UNESCO_E.PDF, Access

UNESCO states, conflict arises from individuals, and hence, it can or cannot be prevented.
1.1.1. Emergence of the Field: Practical Steps
According to Burton, conflict is rebelling against rules or in other worlds to the established
order. There have been steps to institutionalize the means to prevent states from conflicting
with each other. The most important of these steps is the League of Nations.
It can be stated
that after the First World War, the League of Nations (LN) was forced to deal with the ethnic
issues in Central and Eastern Europe as caused by its distribution of these lands. Despite the
efforts of the US President Wilson, a decree has not beenmade in the LN pact that would
ensure the protection of minorities devoted to the prevention of ethnic issues due to the Irish
issue of United Kingdom.
From time to time states have also acted regarding the prevention
of minorities. For instance, there have been agreements signed between states such as USA,
United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Serbian-Croat-Slovenian
states aimed at protection of minorities.
However, expansionist actions of states were not
prevented as LN never attained enough power to sanction states. It can be stated that the
unavoidability of ethnic issues is opening the doors for a new world war and negatively affect
international security.
After the Second World War UN has made adjustments regarding ethnic issues within the
scope of human rights, instead of approaching them under a different subject under minority
rights. In this way, provocation of ethnic issues by other states is avoided, and for the
resolution of conflicts an article entitled "Peaceful Settlement of Disputes"
was established
within the section IV of the UN treaty. The Security Council was actuated for the peaceful
settlement of disputes. The Security Council stated with its adopted course of action that the
issues of those party to a dispute which threats security can be resolved through contact,
investigation, mediation, reconciliation, arbitrage and judicial means of resolution, and also
with regional organizations, agreements or with means that states come up with themselves.
With the 37th article it is stressed that no dispute can be taken to the Security Council and the
General Assembly without taking previous steps to resolve it through peaceful means. The
24th article of the UN Treaty holds the Security Council to account for the preservation of
date: 29.01.2012.
Jeong, 2008, pg. 6.
Erol Kuruba, Asimilasyondan Taninmaya Uluslararasi Alanda Azinlik Sorunlari ve Avrupa Yaklaimi,
Ankara: Asil Yayinlari, 2006, pg. 49.
Kuruba, 2006, pg. 52.
"United Nations Treaty", https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/komisyon/insanhaklari/pdf01/3-30.pdf, Access date:
13.07.2016, pg. 5.

international peace and security.
The 1907 Hague Conventions are a good example of UN's
method of investigation. The most important example of the reconciliation method is when
the Security Council granted power to the Secretary General to appoint an intermediator with
its decision made on 4 March 1964.
Institutional steps to prevent conflicts and to establish
peace became the norm across international organisations as in the example of UN. Alongside
this, non-governmental organisations concerned with conflict management started to appear.
Peace Research Institute at Oslo was founded in 1959. The Institute is focused on subjects such
as conflict resolution, diplomatic dialogue and reconciliation.
The biggest steps in preventing
conflicts were taken before 1960. Problem solving workshops have been organized by John
Burton and Dennis Snadole. Though an important matter here is that before1960, the concept
of conflict was considered to resolve economical disputes.
After the 1960s, conflict analysis
and resolution has started to become institutionalized through universities and non-
governmental organisations. On this regard, nations uttering their dissatisfaction with their
governments actually caused people and governments to realize their power.
Journal of Conflict Resolution was founded in 1957, and the Journal of Peace Research was
founded in 1962 by Johan Galtung. Concordantly, as one of the pioneer institutions related to
conflict management analysis today, the International Peace Research Association (IPRA)
was founded in 1965. University of Bradford founded in 1973 to become the first university
focused on the field of peace.
Such institutionalisation efforts which contributed to the
development of conflict management also lead to discussions regarding conflict management
and the ontology of the discipline.
Quincy Wright describes war as a "violent contact between different but similar units."
the works he made in the 1960's it can be stated he started to drive forward the term conflict
beyond the term war. According to Wright, "war" should be considered as a type of conflict.
Accordingly, Wright stressed that conflict had physical, biological or philosophical and social
Kuruba, 2006, pg. 53.
Hasan Duran, "Birlemi Milletler ve Bariin Korunmasi",
http://www.aku.edu.tr/aku/dosyayonetimi/sosyalbilens/dergi/IV1/12HasanDURAN.pdf, Access date:
12.11.2015. See for detail: UN Treaty Text, http://www.ombudsman.gov.tr/contents/files/35501-Birlesmis-
Milletler-Antlasmasi.pdf, Access date: 12.11.2015.
"Peace Research Institute at Oslo", https://www.prio.org/About/, Access date: 11.11.2015.
Sean Byrne, Jessica Senehi, "Coflict Analysis and Resolution as a Multidicipline A Work in Pogress", in
Handbook Of Coflict Analysis and Resolutions, Dennis J. D. Sandole-Staroste and Jessica Senehi, USA:
Routledge Yayinevi, 2009, pg. 3
Byrne, Senehi, 2009, pg. 4.
Özgün Erler Bayir, Özden Selcen Sari, "Quinc Wright", in Sava Kuramlari, Ed. Erhan Büyükakinci, Ankara:
Adres Yayinlari, 2015, pg. 297.

Correspondingly, the USA founded the Community Relations Service in 1964. An
observation can be made here: developments in international politics has made conflict
management a necessity and helped turn it into an academic field.
The Realist perspective, in terms of its development, is based on the proposition that conflict
will never cease to exist in human relations.
"Covenants, without the sword, are but words,
and of no strength to secure a man at all" writes Hobbes on the subject.
According to this
viewpoint, transformation of conflict is not possible. Those who win the armed conflict among
states have already confiscated the power to establish their world order. The most obvious
example of this is the "victor's peace" philosophy. Historically, it can be claimed that the
concept of victor's peace caused the idea of justice to be interpreted correlatively with events.
For example, as the citizens of the defeated countries in the Second World War were put on
trial in the Nürnberg and Tokio Courts, citizens from winning countries that committed the
same crimes were not. This situation is referred as the victor's justice.
1.1.2. International Relations Theory and the Development of the Field
Within the academic literature, there is no consensus on which of the theories of conflict
, conflict resolution
and peace studies should be employed. Their proximity to
the International Relations theories are criticized according to the manners these concepts are
employed. The term "Conflict Management" is argued to represent a conceptually neo-
realistic viewpoint.
According to Kevin Avruch, conflict management from a realistic
viewpoint deals directly with armed conflict between states and aims to terminate such
As for the idealistic viewpoint, it often employs the term conflict resolution.
Conflict resolution aims to focus on the development of ways and methods that would enable
societies that are unable to live together to coexist.
Many debates have been carried on regarding the concepts of conflict management and
conflict resolution, to the point that some claim conflict resolution and steps of conflict
Bayir and Sari, 2015, pg. 306.
Kevin Avruch, "Culture Theory, Culture Clash, and the Practice of Conflict Resolution", in Handbook Of
Coflict Analysis and Resolutions, Dennis J. D. Sandole-Staroste and Jessica Senehi, USA: Routledge Yayinevi,
2009, pg. 247-250.
Hannah Arendt, "iddet Üzerine", Cogito, Issue: 6-7, Bahar 1996, pg. 8.
Ahmet Hamdi Topal, `Uluslararasi Terörizm ve Uluslararasi Ceza Mahkemesi', Uluslararasi Hukuk and
Politika, Vol 1, No:3, 2005, pg. 85.
Akyeilmen, 2015, pg. 40-51.
Wallensteen, 2006, pg. 14.
Avruch, 2009, pg. 246.
Avruch, 2009, pg. 246.
Hamad, Ahmad, Azem, "The Reconceptualisation of Conflict Management", Peace, Conflict and
Development: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 7, July 2005, pg. 5.

transformation to be an entirely different process within conflict management.
When we
consider the foundations of conflict management as an academic field and its development, it
is revealed that the concept of conflict management takes from many different fields in
carrying on its existence. The concept of conflict management is used by those who carry on
studies in this field as an "umbrella term" and can be claimed to be a concept that contains
conflict resolution and conflict transformation within itself.
As Akyeilmen points out, while
A, Richard Posthuma, Nuno R. Garoupa
Jo~ao E. Gata uses "conflict management"
as an
umbrella term, Eilen Babbiet, Standford Siver consider "conflict resolution"
as an umbrella
In Akyeilmen's words, "as it is thought to be more extensive and meaningful than
others, and in order not cause any conceptual confusion,"
in this study the concept of
conflict management will be employed as the umbrella term.
What makes conflict management topical is the lack of analysis of the works that deal with
conflict management and the deficiency of theoretical works that consider conflict management
itself, which caused the field of Conflict Management to be the considered the same as the
concepts of conflict resolution and conflict transformation.
While some theoretical analyses
have been made on conflict management, most of these have been studies that employed
quantitative methods, discarding normative issues. In this regard, according to Hamad Ahmad, the
first of the pioneer works that ensured the field of conflict management to stand on its own legs
was Ian Lustick's Unsettled States, Disputed Lands: Britain and Ireland, France and Algeria,
Israel and the West Bank­Gaza. This work has brought theory and practice together. The sole
work made in Turkey on this regard which consider both theoretical and practical aspects of the
field, is entitled "Talking Peace," published in 2013 and edited by Nezir Akyeilmen. It can be
argued that the biggest contribution this work has made to the field of conflict management is its
research of the applicability of the theory to the practice by discussing various examples of
conflict on pioneering conceptual bases. This was ensured by including analyses that gather both
theoretical perspectives and their applications regarding conflicts.
Azem, 2005, pg. 6.
Azem, 2005, pg. 6.
Richard, A. Posthuma,"Conflict Management and Emotions", International Journal of Conflict Management,
Vol. 23 , 2012, pg. 4­5, Nuno R. Garoupa, Jo~ao E. Gata, A Theory of International Conflict Management and
Sanctioning, www.econ.upf.edu/docs/papers/downloads/481.pdf, Access date: 12.11.2015.
Babbitt, Eileen, "Conflict Resolution as a Field of Inquiry: Practice Informing Theory",
International Studies Review, No. 13, 2001, pg. 46-57. Siver, Stanford, "A Process Oriented View of Conflict
Resolution", 2005, http://stanfordsiver.net/wp- content/themes/twentyten/pdf/ConflictResolution.pdf, Access
date: 12.11.2015, ss. 1-57.
Akyeilmen, 2013, pg. 31.
Akyeilmen, 2013, pg. 31.
Azem, 2005, pg. 8.

Until today and including its process of establishment as an academic field, conflict
management have had an "interdisciplinary" quality to itself. For instance, the ontology of
conflict is based on the existence of mankind on earth. In addition, human beings interact with
the ecological, economic, political etc. fields.
Hence, if the house of mankind is earth, such
questions of "what is it that they cannot share?", "why they cannot share it?" and "how can
they share?" constitute the primary ontological issues of conflict management. In this regard,
conflicts become fights of existence and the disappearance of one of the sides turns into the
reason of existence of the other.
This perspective takes homo homini lupus as its starting
point and hence it has been claimed that the concept of conflict management has neo-realistic
elements. According to this criticism, conflict management means the management of the
relations between two states for the neo-realists. Hence, usage of the concept of conflict
resolution is suggested over the other. Rejecting the use of the concept of conflict management
due to the borders of the realistic/neo-realistic viewpoints can mean disregarding the
contributions it makes to the developments around the world and the development of the
concepts. Such that, instead of rejecting the contributions of the realist perspective to the
conflict management concept, usage of it as an umbrella term that consists of realist and other
theoretical viewpoints and the knowledge that they generate, may be more correct. For
instance, strained relations generated by the Cuban Crisis of the Cold War era in the context of
its actors, and their softening during the detente period which was ensured as both states made
a difference in their attitude toward the other, can be employed to claim conflict management
developed with a "state-centred" approach. The Cold War period, which we can mention as the
period that made the field of conflict management closer to realist and neo-realist theories and
even reinforced this relation, caused conflicts to be interpreted as situations that happen
between states.
While most conflicts did not emerge between states in the post-Cold War era, the possibility
for conflicts to emerge between different nations in a single country has strongly emerged. But
the basic issue that deserves criticism here is the Class of Civilisation thesis. When
Huntington suggested the idea that civilisations will clash with each other, it can be said that
he realized the reflection of an implicit form of neo-realism to the post-Cold War era.
Huntington considered civilisations as phenomena distinct from the individual. The most
basic indicator of this is his recount of conflict along two main actors, similar to what realists
Thomas E. Boudreau, "Human Agonistes Interdisciplinary Inquiry into Ontological Agency and Human
Coflict", in Handbook Of Coflict Analysis and Resolutions, Dennis J. D. Sandole-Staroste and Jessica Senehi,
USA: Routledge Yayinevi, 2009, pg. 139
Boudreau, 2009, pg. 136

do. Though we can criticize the realists here with a post-modern viewpoint, as it can be
claimed that the realist viewpoint discards the role played by the individual in the inception of
conflicts and that it disregards the individual in the post-Cold War era. Whereas in the post-
Cold War era the individual has become an actor so important in political crises that it could
pit states against each other. For instance, when the WikiLeaks editor Julian Assange, who
exposed secret documents, was granted asylum in the Ecuador Embassy in London, it caused
an international crisis between the UK, the USA and Ecuador.
A portion of the other part of the criticism raised against the concept of conflict management
stems from the concept of "management."
Management here means the act of managing by a
unit or an institution, also referred by the concept of gestion in French, suggesting that the
meaning generally associated with the field of Business Administration is attributed to the
concept. In Turkish, this incomprehensibility is relatively less severe and the concept of
conflict management (çatima yönetimi) hints that conflict has many stages and that each of
these can be managed.
Behaviouralists have contributed to the issue of conflict resolution, which we can consider as a
sub-branch to the field of conflict resolution. The biggest goal of the behaviouralist works is to
prevent previous conflicts to re-emerge. In the post-1945 era, the behaviouralist works have
continued to constitute the basic study topics of the field of conflict management.
Post-war peace and crisis studies have accelerated with Kantian themes but with a positivist
Richardson and Wright have contributed greatly to the endurance of the field as
a sub-field of International Relations.
The most important issuew in such studies is that
while during the Cold War era these studies focused on preventing macro-sized wars, micro-
sized conflicts that could happen in the post-Cold War era were not envisioned. In this era
those who did empirical studies on the causes of wars have missed normative aspect of wars.
Hence, conflict management has reflected the effects of normative theories on the discipline
through its sub branch of conflict resolution. As it is seen, it can be claimed that the peace
studies concept which reflect a rather normative perspective is a sub-branch of conflict
"Wikileaks Editörü Assange'i neler
http://www.bbc.co.uk/turkce/ozeldosyalar/2013/06/130617_assange_ekvador, Access date: 05.04.2015.
Azem, 2005, pg. 11.
Erdem Özlük, "Uluslararasi likiler Disiplininde Davranisalci Paradigmanin Anlami, Kökeni, Çatima
Çözümlemesi Örneinde Davranisalciliin Katkisi",
http://dergisosyalbil.selcuk.edu.tr/susbed/article/download/423/405, Access date: 08.04.2015, pg. 384.
Özlük, Access date: 08.04.2015, pg. 384.

Together with the influence of idealist theory, the concepts of norm and values are effective
on the emergence of the conflict management discipline. The effect of normative theory on
international relations took place largely during the post-Cold War era. It had been claimed
in the previous periods that normative theory was unable to provide an objective perspective
as it was not "scientific."
While the neo-realist perspective has put forward the role played
by the system on the subject of the cause of war, liberals on the other hand has made
scientific studies on regimes regarding the subject. Such that, it has been claimed that
democratic regimes are unable to conflict with each other. Realists on the other hand insist
that conflicts emerge due to the threats against states, but this fail to explain why civil wars
take place. It can be stressed that unavoidability of conflicts cause extreme cases of human
rights violations. Massacres that have took place in countries such as Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia-
Herzegovina, Haiti and Rwanda has helped normative theories to re-emerge once again.
While it has been it suggested that the normative theory asserts what should be instead of what
is, it does also stress such concepts as international justice and international human rights ­
these concepts are far from the ideal and are cold facts of our lives.
Conflicts require the definition of the issue, it is not possible to diagnose an illness if the
illness does not become visible.
The field of conflict management, along with specifying
the general characteristics of all conflicts around the world, should also stress that every
conflict has its own unique properties.
Conflict management shows a similarity in many
ways with the field of medicine. For instance, the general causes of the emergence of an
illness are valid for many of the patients. In this regard, many of the countries where conflicts
emerge have similar causes. Actually, conflict management is similar to the negative/positive
definitions of medicine. While negative medicine, as its name suggest, develops a treatment
with reference to the negative condition resulted by the appearance of a sickness; alternative
medicine, or what we can call positive medicine, can help people without the emergence of
negative conditions.
Herein, conflict management has methods of treatment which people
can use without becoming sick. Conflict management typically employs normative theory in
using such methods of treatment. It can be claimed that normative theory has immensely
Nezir Akyeilmen, "Normatif Teori", Uluslararasi likilere Giri, aban Karda, Ali Balci (Ed.), stanbul:
Küre Yayinlari, 2014, pg. 189.
Akyeilmen, 2014, pg. 189.
Petar Atanasov,"The Progress of the `Ohrid Process' in Macedonia", in Post-Conflict Rehabilitation Lessons
from South East Europe and Strategic Consequences for the Euro-Atlantic Community, Jean-Jacques de Dardel
Gustav Gustenau Plamen Pantev (ed.) Vienna and Sofia: National Defence Academy and Bureau for Security
Policy at the Austrian Ministry of Defence in cooperation with PfP Consortium of Defence Academies and
Security Studies Institutes, April 2006, pg. 182.
Atanasov, 2006, pg. 192.
Galtung, 2009, pg. 515.

contributed to the field in terms of detection and transformation of conflict, if development of
conflict management is of concern.
The biggest issue of post-war societies is the applicability of human rights within the social
On this regard, normative theory provides important contributions to the field of
conflict management in the extents of human rights and justice. For all the unsuccessful
examples, one of the most positive examples for the international society in terms of
prevention of ethnic cleaning is Kosovo.
In this regard, the perspective of those who
represent the Neo-realist/Neo-liberal or the positivist method, is a "less socialised view," in the
words of Alexander Wendt. Constructivists on the other hand claim that developments in
world politics are constructed through social means.
The constructivist perspective on this
regard is more susceptible to contribute to conflict management. For example, human nature
and its relations with social forms are at the start of the most basic assumptions of social
theory. This exact point shows similarity with the ontological problematic of conflict
In discussing social theory, Wendt's starting point and criticism is focused on Waltz's structural
analysis. On this regard, Wendt points out that the relation between Waltz's perspective and an
anarchist order is extremely stressed in international politics and he criticizes this.
reference to this, it can be harder to explain peace with Waltz's anarchist order assumption for
the field of conflict management. According to Waltz states act with a "self-help" assumption.
However states can also co-operate. For instance, in preventing the Northern Ireland issue, the
USA, United Kingdom, and Republic of Ireland have all contributed to establish peace among
the peoples of Northern Ireland.
It can be said that Wendt have opened an important research area for the field of conflict
management by continuing to criticize Waltz and with his general criticism. Actions of states
cannot be explained solely by the distribution of economic power and interests, the characteristic
of the international social life should also be considered.
As a result of the power sharing
Jean-Jacques de Dardel, "Human Rights as a Fundamental Standard of Post-Conflict Rehabilitation, in Post-
Conflict Rehabilitation Lessons from South East Europe and Strategic Consequences for the Euro-Atlantic
Community, Jean-Jacques de Dardel Gustav Gustenau Plamen Pantev (ed.) Vienna and Sofia: National Defence
Academy and Bureau for Security Policy at the Austrian Ministry of Defence in co-operation with PfP
Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes, April 2006, pg. 58.
Plamen Pantev, "Lessons on Post-War Rehabilitation in South East Europe and by South East Europeans", in
Post-Conflict Rehabilitation Lessons from South East Europe and Strategic Consequences for the Euro-Atlantic
Community, Jean-Jacques de Dardel Gustav Gustenau Plamen Pantev (ed.) Vienna and Sofia: National Defence
Academy and Bureau for Security Policy at the Austrian Ministry of Defence in co-operation with PfP Consortium
of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes, April 2006, pg. 113.
Alexander Wendt, Uluslararasi Siyasetin Sosyal Teorisi, stanbul: Küre Yayinlari, 2012, pg. 18.
Wendt, 2012, pg. 21.
Hayirli Cuma Anlamasi, UK: Demokratik Geliim Enstitüsü, 2013, pg. 26-28.
Wendt, 2012, pg. 38.

caused by the international system, competition among states to increase their power is in
question. But states in their international structure have, in economics terms, a trust structure.
One can observe that there is injustice in states that do not have a democratic tradition when it
comes to power distribution in their internal structure. Especially from this sentence, it can be
derived that social identities and expectations of states may cause civil war. In other words it
can be claimed of the thought that trust-based structuring for states is not related to the
human-element stems for the positivist perspective. Based on this, one can state that
theoretical studies of the conflict management discipline should not be separated from social
realities. This is because it is not possible to explain the conflicts that occur within a state
separately from the individual and different social sides.
Another subject Wendt criticizes is the rational choice theory. According to rational choice
theory, the components that come together within a nation state have chosen this as a rational
choice. Accordingly, it is assumed that ethnic groups that live in a nation state together chose
this as the best option. At the bottom, explaining why ethnic groups that live under the same
roof to have armed conflicts with each other, i.e., civil wars with rational choice theory does
not seem quite possible. This is because rational choice theory overlooks social interaction.
Rationalist discourse theorizations in conflict management are done via game theories. As
stated earlier, game theories have made vital contributions to conflict management on the
subject of development of its. However, actors of game theory only utilized the concept of
profit when making a decision.
In fact, `the states acting as humans' proposition was
reversed, and humans were directed to act as states. At this point, the fact that decision
making actors took these decisions through having social interaction should not be
disregarded in the theoretical studies of the field of conflict management. These problems
make it necessary to discuss another research question. In this part of this study, it is claimed
that the most crucial contribution to the development of conflict management as an
independent field of study can be made possible with the increase of theoretical discussions.
In other words, the main research question in this chapter is how can we contribute to the
theoretical background of conflict management. This is why the ontology of the field of conflict
management has to be society-centred instead of being state-centred.
Wendt, 2012, pg. 94.
Wendt, 2012, pg. 189.
In the words of Johan Galtung, it is not possible to establish new worlds, new concepts and new theories for
the peace studies fied by only maintaining a state-centred approach. See: Johan Galtung, "Toward a Coflictology
the Quest for Transdiciplinarity" , in Handbook of Coflict Anaysis and Resolution, Dennis J. D. Sandole, Sean
Byrne, Ngrid Sandole ­Staroste Jessica Senehi, New York, London: Routledge, 2009, pg. 514.

According to Wendt, on the subject of making contributions to the field of conflict
management, there should be not only idealism, but also a holistic perspective that includes
social structuralism. While on the one hand theoretical studies of the field of conflict
management should explain the reasons of conflict, on the other hand, it should present a
holistic perspective that includes an idealist perspective to transform conflict.
In that regard, the concept of conflict and the ones who interpret conflict have developed. For
example, traditional approaches assume that conflict is negative.
In the traditional approach,
conflicts are seen as negative, and in order to reinforce the negative meaning, conflicts are tried
to be kept as having the same meaning with concepts such as violence, destruction,
Behavioural approach towards conflict accepts that conflict is natural and
inevitable in every group and organization. According to this understanding, conflict is not
negative, but its process should be managed. A conflict that is managed can ensure positive
results. Actually, behavioural approach states that the core of conflict is differences. In other
words, the abolishing of conflict based on authority will mean the disappearance of
differences. However, an effective study method will ensure differences to live together.
Likewise, conflicts are neither negative or positive, they are natural actions.
The way of management of conflict among sides may help the consolidation of conflict with
the perceptions of good and evil.
Conflict shows the insufficiency of the system and may
help paving the way for structural changes. In this regard, conflict can become the driving
power of individual, societal, cultural and political change.
Consequently, conflict is
neither entirely negative; if it was, there would not be wars of independence; the absence of
conflict is not entirely good, since even though nations that are under pressure live in a
relative peace environment, they may not have the chance to live independently.
conflict as destructive or constructive may bring with the consequence of not carefully
considering the reasons that reveal conflict in the first place. The important thing here is
whether sides of conflict gave up their demands voluntarily or by necessity. A non-voluntary
renunciation may cause the recurrence of the conflict in the coming years.
To give an
example, if the reason of conflict between the sides is related to economic or social status, for
the conflict to result in reconciliation is more possible; if the reason that causes conflict is
Wendt, 2012, pg. 179.
Atiker, 2006, pg. 2.
Atiker, 2006, pg. 2.
Atiker, 2006, pg. 2.
Akyeilmen, 2014, pg. 19.
Akyeilmen, 2014, pg. 19.
Akyeilmen, 2014, pg. 19.
Alexander Mitscherlich, "Zulüm Üstüne Savlar", Cogito, Bahar 1996, pg. 255.
Jeong, 2008, pg. 12.

cause-weighted, the possibility for conflict to be over decreases. At this point, the following is
to be remembered: conflicts that are value- weighted cause an increase of the polarization of
conflict sides, and as a result, the sovereign power, i.e. the side that governs the state, may
take economic and social steps towards the nonexistence of the other side within the
established system. In that note, while the weight of Protestants increased in state ranks until
the reconciliation was ensured in Northern Ireland, the weight of Catholics in state ranks
decreased. As can be understood from this, conflict does not only result from problems of
economic and social status, besides this, the concerns of "value" and "identity" are also
effective in the occurrence of a conflict. Consequently, a holistic perspective may help
conflict to be understood more.
Another development that helped conflict management to shine out is its relation to the
enlargement of the contents of security concept. Security concept has been changed; political,
economic, social meanings were added into the content of the concept. This shows that
security after Cold War does not only mean the end of armed conflict. For this reason, the idea
that a structure in which political, economic, social rights of sides will be guaranteed within
the concept of security has been proposed.
One of the criticisms that have been made
towards conflict management discipline in that regard is that "democracy deficit" occurs in
phases of conflict management. In other words, the fact that external interventions are high in
number can preclude security reforms to be made in a healthy way, and even deepen conflicts
In the following part of the study, the reasons for conflict will be tried to be
approached systematically by making a distinction between structural and basic reasons of
Structural and Basic Reasons of Conflict
It has been possible most of the time to use state as a tool for social controlling and convincing
society by taking shelter in the argument that the guarantee of peace is arms. This situation is
an indicator that violence bears an element of arbitrariness.
Plamen Pantev and Vesselin Petkov, "Security Sector Governance Issues in Post-Conflict Societies: Concept,
Tasks, Experience in South East Europe", in Post-Conflict Rehabilitation Lessons from South East Europe and
Strategic Consequences for the Euro-Atlantic Community, Jean- Jacques de Dardel Gustav Gustenau Plamen
Pantev (ed.) Vienna and Sofia: National Defence Academy and Bureau for Security Policy at the Austrian
Ministry of Defence in co-operation with PfP Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes,
April 2006, pg. 133.
Pantev and Petkov, 2006, pg. 148.
Arendt, Bahar 1996, pg. 15.

Thus, the West defines terror as violence beyond measure.
However, even though they
consider terrorism as sickness, they do not propose a treatment method: they generally accept
members of terrorist organizations such as IRA, ETA as sick.
Even though terrorism is
diagnosed as a disease, there have been claims on whether it is a purpose or a means or
whether its aim is economic gains. However, at this point, while the diagnosing that violence
can be conscious is made, the subject of national sensitivities has been disregarded. The
subject of national sensitivities can be used both by the power and by the governed as a tool to
legitimize violence
By saying that "there is a right way and a wrong way even in the act
of destruction and everything has a limit," Albert Camus emphasizes that actually the act of
violence is not the right way unless it is based on a right reason. In a way, Camus states that
violence should have morality, too.
It is stated that he transformation towards the use of violence is in close relation to the power,
i.e. the states, to convert into army system. To give an example, the American Revolution and
the French Revolution developed armies. This, in a way, generates a contradiction. Fighting
states that have better trained armies have dominated other states that have more population
but not good armed units. However, the interesting matter here is that nations that are more
populous did revolt against the sovereign power that is less populous.
Actually, these
uprisings caused the concept of civil war to become part of the academic literature. In the
American civil war, which we can define as the first civil war, the South revolted against the
North who had more power with regards to its quality.
Galtung states three types of violence that are connected to each other: structural, cultural and
direct violence. Direct violence can occur among people in the shape of killing and keeping
under pressure. Structural and cultural violence may not be directly seen. Cultural violence can
be used directly to legitimize structural violence and includes all kinds of symbolic
dimensions. All kinds of non-egalitarian behaviour committed within the institutions of society
and discrimination are defined as structural violence.
In that regard, violence can exist in
Semra Somersan, "iddetin ki Yüzü", Cogito Issue: 6-7, Bahar 1996, pg. 43.
Somersan, 1996, pg. 47.
The controversial issue regarding the concept of violence is regarding the meaning it attains. Actually, it is the
etymological root of the word violence that creates this ambiguity. While the word is the same for both French
and English, it does express meanings of different profundity. While the word expresses direct physical violence
and illegal inequity in the English language, in French it could mean pressuring someone for the purpose of
gaining consent. For further information, see: Somersan, 1996, pg. 48.
Kondrad Lorenz, "Saldirganliin Spontanlii", Cogito, Issue: 6-7, Bahar 1996, pg. 170.
C.A.J. Coady, "Terörün Ahlaki", Cogito, Issue: 6-7, Bahar 1996, pg. 272.
Friedrich Engels, "Tarihte idetin Rolü", Cogito, Issue 6-7, Bahar 1996, pg. 175.
Aladdin enel, Irk ve Irkçilik Düüncesi, Ankara: Bilim and Sanat yayinlari, 1993, pg. 146.
Sandy Ascenso, Et Al., Bari Eitimini Yayginlatirma Metodolojiler, Yaklaimlar ve Vizyonlar Uygulama
Kilavuzu, Life Learning Programme, Mart 2014, pg. 32.-35.

apparent and invisible forms.
Heidelberg Institute For International Conflict Research
(HIIC) divides conflicts that do not include violence into two as latent conflict and manifest
Latent conflict corresponds to moral violence as mentioned by Copet-Rougier.
Every conflict possesses the reasons and accumulation that would make conflict visible before
it actually becomes visible. We can define the start of the process in which sides are
uncomfortable with each other as latent conflict. As for visible conflict, it can be defined as the
process when the discomfort of sides reflect on their actions and discourse in a visible way.
As HIIC defined, the name of the period when conflict starts to include violence is called
crisis. Staven Fink explains crisis as a period that lacks stability, while Umberto Eco defines it
as a transformation that leads to destruction.
Crisis can mostly be defined as the social
reflection of the blockage that occurred in the political system. In other words, limited public
participation in administration or the experience of a representation problem
and the will to
put effort in order to punish the authority by the use of pressure and violence deepens
in fact, it may even cause crises. In this regard, crisis according to HIIC is the
name of the intense situation that occurs as a result of at least one side's resort to violence.
It can be stated that violence has an indicative power in this process, as well as the fact that
the period of violent crisis means the acceptance of violence by the sides to the conflict.
Rapid militarisation can occur in the society while actors that use violence in the period of
violent crisis try to make the society accept them.
Somersan, 1996, pg. 48.
"Methodological Approach", http://hiik.de/en/methodik/index.html, Access date: 06.04.2015. Detayli bilgi
için bakiniz: Nezir Akyeilmen, "Çatima Yönetimi: Kavramsal bir Analiz", in Barii Konumak, Nezir
Akyeilmen (ed.), Ankara: ODTÜ yayincilik, 2013, pg. 25. For different classifications, see: According to
Wilmot and Hocker's definition, three main factors are looked for in conflicts: i) a kind of open struggle is to
happen between at least two sides, ii) there is a matter of mutual dependency for the sides of the conflict, iii)
sides must percept a threat from the other side. The presence of the conditions that would cause a conflict is
stated as the first phase in the academic literature. Perceived conflict arises after conflict sides realize a
difference of opinion between the groups and in this phase both sides create a scenario as to why conflict
emerged. These scenarios change the attitudes of both sides as a result of misperceptions. For more information
see Akyeilmen, 2013, pg. 21.
Somersan, 1996, pg. 48.
"Methodological Approach", http://hiik.de/en/methodik/index.html, Access date: 06.04.2015. For more
information see: Akyeilmen, 2013, pg. 26.
Levent Yilmaz, Siyasal Kültür-Kriz Etkileimi Çerçevesinde Türk Siyasal Kültürünün Kriz Alanlari,
Unpublished Master's Thesis, zmir: Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, 2003, pg. 1-3.
Yilmaz, 2003, pg. 15.
Iik Ergüden, "Örnek Bir iddet Mekani: Hapishane", Cogito, Issue: 6-7, Bahar 1996, pg. 109.
"Methodological Approach", http://hiik.de/en/methodik/index.html, Access date: 06.04.2015. For more
information see: Akyeilmen, 2013, pg. 28.
Akyeilmen,2013, pg. 28, pg. 28.

War is subsequent to violent crisis, in other words, it is the name of the period in which
violence is institutionalized. Within the 5600 years of recorded history of humanity, over
14.600 wars have taken place, the average of each year is 2.6 wars.
The farthest point of
master-slave classification in the history of humanity is wars. War gives the winner the
possibility to become the master by giving the winner the opportunity to take over the
resources of the loser. Conflict management aims to prevent a new master-slave classification
in an occurring ethnic.
Thus, preventing the throughout exploitation of the resources of the
loser as a consequence of the master winning the war is aimed.
Conflict management firstly aims the termination of violence and then the transformation of
conflict in ethnic studies. This is because political power gained via violence may trigger the
reoccurrence of violence by weakening or loss of power. By ensuring social reconciliation,
conflict management aims to prevent the use of violence as a means once again.
One of the most important reasons of conflict is the non-equal distribution of resources. In
other words, inequality in resource distribution is among the reasons of conflict.
choices made as a side of conflict by a section of the society may negatively affect the other
side. To give an example, the attempt of Sinhaleses, who are in the majority, to make their
language dominant via the "Sinhalese Only Bill" created the perception on the Tamil society
that their language is forbidden, and the Tamil society was affected negatively by the process.
The most important matter that should receive attention at this point is that an action made by
a side can cause conflicts to arise.
In that regard, psychological reasons should also be
considered for the emergence of conflicts.
We can divide the reasons of conflict into two main categories in general, as structural and
basic reasons. Historic legacy, ethnic, religious and language differences, the existence of an
ethnic group that has the upper identity in a dominant position, and the fact that the militarist
mind-set is very high in societies constitute the structural reasons of conflict. As for basic
reasons of conflict, we can list them as political instability and weakness of government,
economic factors, social reasons, environment factor, and cultural and perception
Archer and Gartner, 1996, pg. 247.
Yavuz Erten, Cahit Ardali, "Saldirganlik, iddet ve Terörün Psikososyal Yapilari", Cogito, Issue: 6-7, Ki-
Bahar 1996, pg. 157.
Erten, Ardali, 1996, pg. 158.
Atiker, 2006, pg. 3.
Jeong, 2008, pg. 11.
Hüseyin Baci, "Önsöz Yerine Çatima Analiz", Barii Konumak, Ankara: ODTÜ Yayimcilik, 2013, pg. 9.

It is easier for states to wage war against each other that have hostility in between them within
their histories. Likewise, an existing hostility between different ethnic groups being inherited
from generation to generation may be the structural reason of conflict.
The Northern Ireland
problem has a historical background of more than 600 years.
One of the structural reasons of conflict may result from the effects of neighbouring countries
on conflict. Neighbouring countries may have kept the other state under its sovereignty for a
period of time in conflicts. In that regard, Ireland has been under the sovereignty of Britain for
many years. The state of Britain dominated Northern Ireland by presenting this historic legacy
as a reason. While religious ties brought Northern Ireland and Britain closer, it resulted with
Catholics in Northern Ireland to have closer relations with the Republic of Ireland. As a result,
the Northern Ireland problem has turned into a multi-dimensional one.
Another example is
the role of France in the emergence of the Basque problem. While Spain was under French
sovereignty in 1813, it supported England and rebelled against France. This rebellion had lead
the way towards the independence war of Spain.
During civil war, France supported the rebels located by its border against Spain. In reality,
the Basque problem became clear as a result of the Spanish civil war. During the period,
France was the gathering place of resistance leaders, so to speak. Rebels made international
connections over France during the civil war and got weapon and money aids over France.
As it is in the Indian example, neighbouring countries may support ethnic discriminatory
groups in order to increase their influence in regions. In order to increase its regional power,
India supported Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka.
It can help in the matter of eliminating
structural reasons of conflict for neighbouring countries to change their attitudes on ethnic
discriminatory conflicts.
Another structural reason for ethnic conflicts is regarding the sharpness of the ethnic and
linguistic differences between ethnic groups and as a result, the abolishment of social
transitivity. The existence of a dominant ethnic group in state may cause the result of
exclusion of other ethnic groups from the system. In Northern Ireland, the fact that
unemployment is higher among Catholics when compared to Protestants and their ethnic and
linguistic differences triggers the emergence of conflict.
For this reason, it is possible to
Karen Rasler, William R. Thompson, "Explaining Rivalry Escalation to War: Space, Position and Contiguity
in the Major Power Subsystem", International Studies Quarterly, 2000, No. 44, pg. 505.
Good Friday Agreement, 2013, pg. 26-28.
Irwing Werstein, "The Cruel Years", Indiana: Messner Certified Editions, 1969, pg. 25.
Werstein, 1969, pg. 148.
Yusuf Çinar, Tamil Sorunu, Tarihsel Geliim, Çatima Süreci ve Çözüm, stanbul: Hükümdar Yayinlari,
2014, pg. 96.
James Honaker, "Unemployment and Violence in Northern Ireland: A Missing Data Model for Ecological

overcome structural problems when the groups that have ethnic and linguistic differences
within the state have the equality of opportunity.
Ethnic and linguistic problems are not only the problem of underdeveloped countries. To give
an example, according to a report by Amnesty International, the number of blacks who had
been sentenced to death by 1978 is known to be eight times that of the number of whites. The
issue blacks objected to in the 1980's was especially the fact that decisions juries have made
against blacks during the judgement processes were mostly against them. For example, 6 of
12 black prisoners were executed in 1983. All white people in the jury that made the decision
of execution voted for the execution of black prisoners.
Among 1838 members of juries
that made a decision for execution in 1998, only 22 of them were black, and another 22 of
them were of Latin America origin.
In 1961, a committee was formed by President
Kennedy under the name of equal employment opportunity so that all American citizens can
find jobs without being exposed to racist discrimination. Structural problems between whites
and blacks in the USA were lowered to a minimum level at the end of a long period as the
result of structural reforms.
Another structural reason of conflict is the fact that militarist culture is vested among
societies. Imprinted military mentality can be a determining factor for the conflict to achieve
highly dangerous dimensions. The facts that strategic cultures of Balkan countries are prone
to conflicts and have militarist tendencies make it easy for them to use violence to solve the
problems between each other. The war of Bosnia-Herzegovina is a historical example which
shows that the side of societies in which a militarist mentality
is stronger can develop more
hostile policies towards the other. Serbians within the Yugoslavian Federation who held the
military in their hands, exhibited military precautions towards destructing other ethnic groups
during the fragmentation of Yugoslavia and turned the conflict between societies into
Political instability and weakness of administration may cause an inability to provide
sufficient services. The inconveniences that may happen in a political authority may damage
the superiority of law. A damaged superiority of law may result in discriminatory national
Inference", http://tercer.bol.ucla.edu/papers/ni.pdf, Access date: 04.05.2015, pg. 4.
BLTES, World Report Racism 1998, Intermedia, September 1998, pg. 235.
BLTES, 1998, pg. 237.
When the Bosnian War started, the Serbian military had 100.000 soldiers, the Croation military had 15.000
strong and the Muslim military had 3.500. Emel Osman çavuolu, The Wars of Yugoslav Dissolution and
Britain's Role in Shaping Western Policy, Ankara: SAM Yayinlari, Temmuz 2000, pg. 25.
Margaret Mikyung Lee, Raphael Perl, Steven Woehrel, CRS Report for Congress, Bosnia War
Crimes: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and U.S. Policy,
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/96-404.pdf, Access date: 27.06.2016, pg. 8.

ideologies to find themselves a legal basis. A continuous legal injustice can create
discriminatory political institutions in countries that experience ethnic conflicts. As a result,
discrimination in participation in the administration may result in the unequal representation
of members of society from different ethnic backgrounds. In other words, it can turn into an
attempt to hold military and police forces by an ethnic group that has the control of
administration. As a result, the perception of discrimination established within societies may
Economic and social reasons
are another basic reason that triggers social disintegration and
conflict. Being unable to answer the calls by members of an ethnic group of economic needs
and demands may have an increasing effect on ethnic conflicts. Certain people part of a
definite ethnic group having better social status and the active discrimination of other ethnic
groups from the system constitute the economic dimension of conflicts. In addition, the
percentage of unemployment being very high in the country may cause an increase of
conflicts. Also, discriminatory policies in attaining capital cause unrest within the country.
The increase of economic instability within societies and the increase of unemployment may
force societies to see one another within themselves as the core reason of the problem. As a
result, conflict may have a spreading effect in the base of the society.
The topic that we can count as another basic reason of conflict is the environmental factors.
The usage of environmental factors, the income that is gained through natural resources in a
way that leads to injustice may affect internal stability negatively. Especially if the usage of
resources does not to reflect on the income of the part of the society that has the resources, it
may cause the emergence of conflict. To give an example, the regions that hold precious
minerals, sources of energy or capital may not make an effort to share these incomes with the
other regions of the country. These reasons may trigger a conflict. For instance, the separation
will of the Catalonia area in Spain results from the wish that Catalonia does not want to share
its regional capital with other areas.
Cultural and perceptual reasons may cause conflicts. Especially the ethnic group that
approaches the capacity to govern the state through an upper identity can take steps to prevent
the continuation of the cultural elements of other ethnic groups. In that regard the fulfilling
the cultural needs of Catholics were not prioritized as much as those of Protestants. It can be
Galtung excessively employed Muzaffer erif's work regarding the physichological causes of the issue of
conflict. Betül Onursal, Bari Kültürü ve Eitimi Çalitayi, stanbul: 21.Yüzyil Eitim ve Kültür Vakfi, 2013,
pg. 46.
Johan Galtung, Transcend Transform an Introduction to Conflict Work, London: Pluto Press, 2004, pg. 53.
Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution, A Study Guide Series on Peace and Conflict For
Independent Learners and Classroom Instructors, United States Institute of Peace Washington, DC: 2007, pg. 3-
6. Ayrica bakiniz: Kuruba, , 2006, pg. 253.

stated that this situation is the transformation process of seeing the other not as an equal. This
process can show itself in different ways. To give an example, the side in power takes steps
towards limiting the freedom of religion and conscience of other sides, or implements cultural
discrimination in education towards different cultural groups, which may cause conflicts
between ethnic groups.
There are two approaches on elimination of structural and root reasons of conflict: Needs
Approach and Rational Approach. The Needs Approach claims that most of the conflicts
develop within the framework of mutual needs.
Needs is not just a material approach, on
the contrary it includes abstract things as well. Concepts such as identity, security, justice are
abstract needs that provide society to mentally calm down. Structural and root reasons that
trigger conflicts are not only in relation to material needs, on the contrary they are in close
relation to both material and abstract needs. Such that the emergence of an area called
conflictology that emerged as per needs after the 1970's made the concept of needs further
important for the conflict management discipline.
Human needs theorists claim that the main
reason for all kinds of conflicts, whether they are violent or not, is needs.
Needs may cause people to come together around a certain cause. Even though most of the
causes that we can regard as the structural or basic reasons of conflicts do not have primary
importance according to Maslow's pyramid of needs, they are among the main reasons why
conflict arises. Precisely at this point, the need of nutrition and shelter, which used to have
primary importance in Maslow's hierarchy of needs in before and during Cold War era are no
longer the main reason for conflicts in Europe after Cold War. Concepts of belonging and
self-respect, which have a lesser importance in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, started to
become more prominent after the Cold War, the importance issue of needs in the hierarchy of
needs have undergone a change.
Rational approach is based on the idea that when sides of conflict reach to the stage of wiping
out each other, both sides can change their behaviour by accepting that what they did was not
The concept of interest reflects the way rational approach perceives conflicts. There
are two basic criticisms that we can bring to rational approach. The first one is that it does not
seem quite possible to explain a big part of basic reasons of conflicts via the rational
Herbert C. Kelman, "A Social-Psychological Approach to Coflict Analysis and Resolution", içinde
Hand Book of Coflict Anaysis and Resolution, Dennis J. D. Sandole, Sean Byrne, Ngrid Sandole ­ Staroste
Jessica Senehi, New York, London: Routledge, 2009, pg. 171.
Galtung, 2009, pg. 524. Ayrica bakiniz: Louis Kriesberg, "Comparing Reconciliation Actions within and
between Countries", in From Coclict Resolution to Reconcilitation, Yaacov Bar-Siman-Tov (ed.), New York:
Oxford University Press, 2004, pg. 88.
Havva Kök Arslan, Firat Çapan, "Çatima Çözümüne Temel Yaklaimlar", Barii Konumak, Nezir
Akyeilmen (Ed.), Ankara: ODTÜ yayinlari, 2013, pg. 51.
Arslan ve Çapan, 2013, pg. 54.

Another criticism that can be made towards rational approach is that it cannot
make an adequate explanation on prevention of conflict or regarding the ability to transform
the reasons that cause conflict.
Even though the applicability of the theory of needs carries a strong characteristic in
preventing basic reasons of why conflicts occur, it does not have the strength to resolve
conflicts on its own. Accordingly, it can be said that theory of needs is more useful than
rational theory when it comes to resolving conflicts. This study assumes that in transforming
conflicts, and removing the structural and root causes of conflict, the needs approach is more
applicable to the Northern Ireland example.
Phases of Conflict Management
After a conflict comes to sight in organisations, there are certain approaches for its sides to
manage it: competition, collaboration adaptation, reconciliation, evasion.
Evasion strategy
is the leading among the most frequent steps for preventing conflict in organizations. Evasion
strategy stems from the belief that problem will be resolved by itself when the units and the
people that have the power to resolve the conflict ignore it. However, it cannot be stated that
evasion strategy has positive results when it comes to the resolution of the problem. During
civil wars, this strategy arises when state administrators act according to the idea that such a
conflict is not actually being experienced. Evasion strategy means the rejection of demands of
the society that is uncomfortable with the conditions even if in a latent manner by the ruling
power. This process may enroot social conflicts further and it may have the effect of increasing
discomfort. England has believed for years that they could solve the Northern Ireland problem
with an evasion strategy, in fact, it was this perception shaped legal reforms and novelties.
England defined terror in the Ireland Emergency Provisions Act as "using violence with the
aim of spreading fear in public and in a certain part of the public" in 1973.
furthering of the negotiation process in order to transform the Northern Ireland problem and
to make a certain progress brought together the renewal of the definition of terror. The
definition of terror that England made in 2001 added religious and political aims instead of
putting ideological activities on its focus: "it is the threatening of people and property with
serious use or uses of violence with the aim of forcing the government, the society or any part
of the society to someplace to obtain religious, political and ideological results".
Arslan ve Çapan, 2013, pg. 55.
Atiker, 2006, pg. 6.
Türkiye ve Terörizm. Ankara: Türkiye Barolar Birlii, 2006, pg. 12.
Türkiye ve Terörizm, 2006, pg. 12.

England's renewal of the concept of terror in legal terms actualized when England realized
that the Northern Ireland problem is not only a problem of violence. Accepting evasion
strategy as a strategy that can be used to manage civil wars may not contribute positively to
the development of discipline. Competition, collaboration adaptation, reconciliation strategies
are considered as phases of conflict appeasing, conflict resolving and conflict transforming
among solving strategies and within conflict management.
Conflict management method that is used as an umbrella term in this study consists of three
phases, namely appeasing conflict, resolving conflict and transforming conflict. The conflict
appeasing phase is the name of the process that aims for the abolition of violence. In this
context, the appeasing conflict phase aims for the resolution of conflict as early as possible.
Appeasing conflict phase is more in relation to the concept of negative peace. The distinction
of Negative Peace and Positive Peace has been made by Johan Galtung. Negative Peace:
despite a lack of violence, this process has a pessimistic meaning. In the process of negative
peace, there is a concern that the element of violence may reoccur at any moment. Positive
Peace: It has the meaning of structural integrity. It carries a positive meaning, and emphasizes
that peace can be established via peaceful ways: positive peace is possible when real peace is
Actors that are influential in the appeasing conflict phase consist of leaders that
direct politics or soldiers. To give an example, Tony Blair has played an important role in the
appeasing conflict phase of the Northern Ireland problem. Blair helped the sides come together
by assuming a negotiator role.
The appeasing conflict phase can be considered as the
detailed process of gathering information in order to reveal and learn the reasons of conflict.
Appeasing conflict phase can also be defined as the period of convincing conflicting sides that
the problem cannot be resolved with violence. Immediately after, the definition of what the
problem results from can also be approached in the appeasing conflict phase.
The conflict resolution phase specifies the transition from a negative peace process to a
positive peace process. Here, peace is also negative peace. This phase expresses the
adaptation of both sides to a lack of peace and their needs being fulfilled at a reasonable
degree. Thus, channels of communication between societies can be opened by establishing
dialogue channels between the sides. In that regard, as the process proceeds successfully,
sides get prepared for the conflict transformation phase, which is the following phase in
conflict management. Conflict resolution phase means the acceptance of the discourse of
Baljit Singh Grewal, "Johan Galtung: Positive and Negative Peace", School of Social Science, Auckland
University of Technology, New Zelland, 2003, pg. 4.
"Out of Trouble: How Diplomacy Brought Peace to Northern Ireland",
http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/03/12/northern.ireland/index.html?iref=newssearch, Access date:

political and military leaders, who we can call the elite actors. As a matter of fact, it can be
said that the conflict resolution phase means the socialization of the problem. In this process,
secondary level actors such as civil society, academics and experts may actively take charge.
To give an example, as a civil society organization, Irish Peace Center produces crucial
studies for the construction of sustainable peace in Northern Ireland.
Both structural and basic reasons play an important role for conflicts to arise. Every so often,
the interaction of both structural reasons and basic reasons may cause a conflict. Conflict
transformation does not only mean the abolition of the basic reasons. On the contrary, the
conflict transformation phase is focused on structural changes, and consequently aims for the
construction of a long term peace. In this regard, starting for the transformation of structural
causes is inclusive of all categories of society. Base-oriented actors shine out more during the
conflict transformation phase, and society-centred civil society organizations play an active
part. Conflict transformation phase helps ensure joint activities that different parts of society
have not been able to do for a long while. While the common living space of Catholics and
Protestants was non-existent in Northern Ireland until the conflict transformation phase, the
establishment of common living spaces in neighbourhoods and schools started with the Good
Friday Agreement. The result that should not be forgotten here is that phases of conflict
appeasing, conflict resolution and conflict transformation are not separate processes that are
disconnected from each other. On the contrary, conflict transformation phase is the name of
the holistic process that includes conflict appeasing and conflict resolution.
Conflict transformation phase is directly society-oriented and the main aim is to integrate
parts of society. With this aim, activities that include sides to the conflict are organized. These
activities play an important role as part of strengthening the perception of all parts of society
on living together in the future. The first of the causes for structural problems are
discriminatory rules and regulations caused by legal and constitutional inequality. It can be
said that the conflict transformation phase means the complete abolishment of these rules and
Ariel Heifetz Knobel, "A Paradoxial Peace in Northern Ireland", Praxis the Fletcher Journal of Human
Security, Vol. 26, 2011, pg. 89.

1.2 Conflict Transformation Phase in Conflict Management
Conflict transformation phase constitutes social developments that are in motion within
themselves, including putting forward "reforms" that will change the legal arrangements
which prevent equality of opportunity between peoples, "education" tools that can ensure
peoples to empathize with each other, and the "rehabilitation" phase that will abolish the
prejudices and discriminatory thoughts groups have towards each other, all of whom sides to
the conflict.
The conflict transformation phase has three basic means which can help with
conflict transformation: Structural and Constitutional Reforms, Education, Rehabilitation.
Most of the studies on social changes are consider underdevelopment or nature control. However,
one of the aspects of social change that should be carefully analysed is the recovery of the conflict
conditions of societies that experienced civil war or big ethnic conflicts through reforms.
Weber and Durkheim's theory of change underlines the concept of rationalization on the
development of West, Parsons claims that this is also social as well as being cultural.
Parsons emphasizes, the differentiation of the functions of the social system can be possible with
the help of the cultural system.
Parsons attributes social change to both infrastructure and to
superstructure as a subsidiary mechanism.
In this context, in countries that experience civil war,
reforms do not start at the infrastructure as Parsons stated, mostly they are implemented with the
superstructure taking initiative. Reforms become successful with the society's acceptance or they
leave a mark in history as unsuccessful reform trials.
Legal tools may cause an illegality which they gather around themselves while power is being
Because of this, highly important roles can be attributed to the concept of reform
in the conflict transformation stage. The opposite concept of reform is the word deform.
Reform means making changes in the form of an institution in order to achieve the best results,
while deform means transfiguring an institution by changing it.
Reform aims the
Marshall B. Rosenberg, Çatimanin Ortaminda Bari Dili, Trans. Vivet Alevi, Can Baldan, stanbul: Maya
Kitap, 2014, pg. 136.
Emre Kongar, "Türkiye'de Aile Yapisi, Evrimi ve Bürokratik Örgütlerle likileri", Amme daresi Dergisi,
Volume: 3, Issue: 2, 1977, pg. 63.
Jeffreyc Alexande, "Revolution, Reaction, and Reform: the Change Theory of Parsons's Middle Period",
http://ccs.research.yale.edu/alexander/articles/1981/RevolutionReactionReform.pdf, Access
date: 06.04. 2015,s. 269.
Kongar, 1977, pg. 77.
Kongar, 1977, pg. 77.
Mcihael Foucault, Hapishanenin Douu, Trans. Mehmet Ali Kiliçbay, Ankara: mge, 2013, pg. 405.
Turgut Candan, "Reform mu? Deform mu? Ya da nedir?",
http://www.yargitay.gov.tr/abproje/belge/sunum/conf1/Candan_ReformDeform.pdf, Access date: 06.04.2015,
pg. 1.

implementation of changes without the disruption of integrity of the existing institution in
order to resolve some problems that result from the old form of the institution. The aim of a
reform should depend on more inclusive and objective criteria.
Social needs are continuous dependently on the individual. In that regard, social needs can be
legal, social, military and economic. The concept that we can define as reforms, i.e.
improvements, should aim for the fulfilment of needs as its meaning suggests, and should be
result-oriented. As Petit Robert states, if a reform is implemented in order to accomplish good
results, the result may be positive.
Constitutional obstacles may get in the way of implementation of reforms that would include
the whole public administration. Instead, a holistic draft law that includes every part of
society and reflects to social reconciliation may resonate more with the social base. The
inability of reforms to find a place in the social base may render the reforms meaningless.
In most of the countries that have separatist problems, the definition of state is considered in a
"narrowing" manner and consequently, local governments are excluded. Actually, the first of
the most important reforms is the expansion of this "state concept". The new definition that
will be made has to include local governments as well. Within greater interpretations,
emphases are made on the autonomy of local governments, the strengthening of the
administration of local governments come into question. As can be seen, an expansionary
approach can be more reformist.
It is not very possible to speak of reforms by continuously
making laws. Instead, the continuous destruction of a constitution that abolishes the structural
reasons for conflict and reflects social reconciliation is much harder.
The reforms that are made can only be successful if they are adopted by both the society
and the bureaucracy. It may not always be possible for the legal reforms to be accepted by
all parts of the society in societies with ethnic conflict. For this reason, the acceptance of
reforms made for the public by the bureaucracy may help reforms to be permanent.
UN is closely interested in the security sector reforms with regards to the context of
construction of peace. Security sector reforms refer to transparency in state administration,
accountability of decision makers and the existence of democratic administration. In this regard,
the important components of reforms of the security sector are the following:
Candan, Access date: 06.04.2015, pg. 2.
Turgut Candan, Access date: 06.04.2015, pg. 2.
Ekonomi Politikalari Aratirma Enstitüsü Yönetiim Etütleri Programi, Kamu Yönetimi Reformunda Mevcut
Durum, EN-GS-2006-02, Türkiye Ekonomi Politikalari Aratirma Vakfi Deerlendirme Notu, stanbul: Tesev
Yayinlari, 2006, pg. 1.
Ekonomi Politikalari Aratirma Enstitüsü Yönetiim Etütleri Programi, 2006, pg. 1.
Ekonomi Politikalari Aratirma Enstitüsü Yönetiim Etütleri Programi, 2006, pg. 3.

i-) Main Actors of Security: armed forces, the police, paramilitary forces, intelligence
services, local security units, ii-) Administration and Surveillance Forces: national security
units, ministry of defence, executive and judicial organs, domestic and international affairs,
ministries of economy, iii-) The Superiority of Justice and Law: ministry of justice, criminal
investigation, investigation units, human rights committees iv-) Illegal Security Forces:
rebellious groups, guerrilla fighters.
There are two important aims of security sector reforms. i-) Security sector reforms are made
in order to make the sector more effective and more efficient. In this regard, reforms of
humane construction and construction of material capacity are among the important tools in
establishing reforms. ii-) Facilitative reforms of democratic and civil security sector may play
an important role in establishing civil administration.
Security sector reforms may make
vital contributions to conflict transformation. In that regard, such reforms can help with
economic, social and institutional transformation of conflict. Security sector reforms should
be human-centred and they should be adopted by local powers. Security sector reforms should
be within the framework of human rights principles and the superiority of law.
Making Security sector reforms human-centred and the increase of freedoms may prevent the
existence of elements of violence in the society. In the conflict transformation phase,
authoritarianism may reappear if security policies are not civilian-centred. Security reforms may
ensure their legitimacy in the society as long as they meet the need of justice of the people and the
state. Security reforms should develop within the principles of good governance, i.e., criteria such
as openness and accountability so that a participatory administration can be provided.
Rule of law has to be in line with international norms and standards. If a good administration
does not progress on a legal base, it may cause a violation of human rights and exclusionist
acts towards minorities. What makes reforms possibly much highly important is the inability
of the sides to come to an agreement on power-sharing before the conflict. Therefore, the
reconciliation of the sides on sharing of power is highly important for conflict
Security sector reforms may safeguard a sustainable peace if they
materialize as the result of the reconciliation of sides to the conflict.
Albrecht Schnabel, Hans Born, Security Sector Reform Narrowing the Gap between Theory and Practice,
Geneva: The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2011, pg. 10-11.
Schnabel and Born, 2011, pg. 11-12.
Schnabel and Born, 2011, pg. 11-12.
Schnabel and Born, 2011, pg. 14-15.
Schnabel and Born, 2011, pg. 14-15.

International actors that support the peace process and security reforms should monitor the
process. The sustainability of reforms in security sector is also closely related with the
existence of a good administration. The identification of the real enemy, the opposition and the
terrorist in the society gets harder after conflict.
Consequently, new organizations within the
government should be implemented with transparency.
The success and failure of security reforms is closely related to the environment the reforms
are made in. The biggest obstacle to reforms is usually created during the conflict phase by the
elite that play an active part in the state. The elite may react to the reforms with discontent. If
security reforms are made in an accountable, transparent environment, this may ensure them to
be persistent. If the reforms are made via mechanisms that reflect the democratic tradition such
as parliaments, that may make them successful. In this regard, the fact that Northern Ireland
has a democratic tradition has been a positive step in terms of ensuring the transformation of
Northern Ireland problem. The justice system is highly important for guaranteeing the security
of reforms. The disappearance of the injustice that caused civil wars can be possible with the
reliable implementation of security reforms.
Civil society organizations may be effective in the formation of security organizations. A weak
civil society may mean that the surveillance mechanisms are also weak. Therefore, it can
prevent security reforms to reach their target. One of the most important negativities that are
experienced in the configuration process after a conflict is the inability to effectuate the criterion
of transparency and the increase of corruption as a result of the inability to develop a legal
infrastructure. It is seen important to create the legal ground for international organizations and
civil society organizations to assume a supervisory role in order to prevent corruption. It can be
stated that giving financial and technical support to civil society organizations for their
development would pave the way for all civil society organizations to come together under an
umbrella organization. In that regard, another tool that can help the society develop and
enlighten is media. Ensuring media to work independently and paving the way for its
broadcasting ability are among the steps that can affect the dialogue process positively.
support of other states is vital in the restructuring period after a civil war. However,
foregrounding their own interest by contributor states may cause an increase of intervention in
domestic affairs and the disappearance of the common voice among contributor states.
Schnabel and Born, 2011, pg. 25.
Schnabel and Born, 2011, pg. 33.
Post-Conflict Reconstruction, A joint project of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and
the Association of the United States Army (AUSA), USA: CSIS, 2002,s. 16-20.
Schnabel and Born, 2011, pg. 39.


Type of Edition
ISBN (Softcover)
File size
2.8 MB
Publication date
2018 (July)
Conflict Management Transformation Rehabilitation Theory Social Interaction Transforming Conflict

Title: From Conflict to Peace. Rehabilitation Process in the Phase of Transforming Conflict - The Case of Northern Ireland
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